- •We compared continuous and partial reinforcement in producing nocebo hyperalgesia.
- •Nocebo hyperalgesia was established under both reinforcement schedules.
- •Continuous reinforcement produced the strongest nocebo hyperalgesia.
- •Nocebo hyperalgesia failed to extinguish irrespective of the reinforcement schedule.
- •Preventing nocebo hyperalgesia before it is established is an important clinical goal.
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This research was supported by a University of Sydney Bridging Support Grant and an Australian Research Council Discovery Project (DP150104023) awarded to B.C. L.C. is supported by the University of Maryland, Baltimore. The authors have no conflict of interest in producing this manuscript.