- •We systematically reviewed the effects of movement representation on limb pain.
- •Overall, observation and imagination of movements reduced limb pain and disability.
- •We found good evidence for mirror therapy and motor imagery.
- •We found no evidence for phantom limb pain and poststroke pain.
- •Major limitations were small number of trials and sample sizes, and heterogeneity.
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Christian Dohle and Bernhard Borgetto share last authorship.
This study was financially supported by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research Germany ( 01KG1212 ) and the ZVK Foundation for the promotion of research in physiotherapy.
Christian Dohle is first author of 1 included study. He was not involved in data extraction and methodological rating of this study. Christian Rietz is coauthor of 1 included study. He was not involved in data extraction and methodological rating of this study.
All other authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.