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High Levels of Vicarious Exposure Bias Pain Judgments

      Abstract

      The present study evaluated the effects of exposure to facial expression of pain, on observers' perceptions of pain expression. Participants were undergraduates shown brief video clips of the facial expressions of shoulder-pain patients displaying no pain or moderate pain. Participants were randomly allocated to either a high preexposure condition in which each clip was preceded by 10 other clips showing strong pain or a no-exposure control. On each test trial, participants indicated whether they thought the person they saw was in pain or not. Data were analyzed using signal detection theory methods. High prior exposure to pain was unrelated to sensitivity to pain expression, but did significantly diminish the likelihood of judging the other to be in pain. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for pain judgments of health-care professionals, adaptation-level theory, and the psychophysical method of selective adaptation.

      Perspective

      This paper provides an experimental demonstration that, when people have large amounts of exposure to others' expressions of pain, their estimation of others' pain is reduced. The findings offer 1 explanation for the widely observed underestimation bias in pain judgments and may suggest ways of changing it.

      Key words

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