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The Association Between Incident Self-reported Fibromyalgia and Nonpsychiatric Factors: 25-years Follow-up of the Adventist Health Study

  • Chan-Jin Choi
    Affiliations
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California

    Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, 505 Banpo-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul, Korea
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  • Raymond Knutsen
    Affiliations
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California
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  • Keiji Oda
    Affiliations
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California
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  • Gary E. Fraser
    Affiliations
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California
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  • Synnove Fonnebo Knutsen
    Correspondence
    Address reprint requests to Dr. Synnove Fonnebo Knutsen, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92399.
    Affiliations
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California
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      Abstract

      The purpose of the study was to investigate the association between incident self-reported fibromyalgia (FM) and prior somatic diseases, lifestyle factors, and health behaviors among 3,136 women who participated in 2 cohort studies 25 to 26 years apart (the Adventist Health Study 1 and 2). The women completed a comprehensive lifestyle and medical history questionnaire at baseline in 1976. Information on new diagnosis of doctor-told FM was obtained at the second survey in 2002. A total of 136 women reported a diagnosis of FM during 25 years of follow-up, giving a period incidence of 43/1,000 or 1.72/1000 per year. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, a significant, dose-response association was found with number of allergies with OR of 1.61 (95% CI: .92–2.83) and 3.99 (95% CI: 2.31–6.88), (P[trend] < .0001), respectively, for 1 and 2 or more allergies versus none. A history of hyperemesis gravidarum was also associated with FM with OR of 1.32 (95% CI: .75–2.32) and 1.73 (95% CI: .99–3.03), (P[trend] < .05), respectively, for some or all pregnancies versus none. A positive association with smoking was also found with OR of 2.37 (95% CI: 1.33–4.23) for ever smokers versus never smokers. No significant association was found with number of surgeries, history of peptic ulcer, or taking medications to control various symptoms.

      Perspective

      Smoking as well as prevalent allergies, and a history of hyperemesis gravidarum, seem to predict development of FM in women during 25 years of follow-up. This information may help in identifying persons at high risk of developing FM and thus initiate effective prevention strategies.

      Key words

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