Critical Review| Volume 13, ISSUE 1, P1-9, January 2012

Effects of Yoga Interventions on Pain and Pain-Associated Disability: A Meta-Analysis

Published:December 19, 2011DOI:


      We searched databases for controlled clinical studies, and performed a meta-analysis on the effectiveness of yoga interventions on pain and associated disability. Five randomized studies reported single-blinding and had a higher methodological quality; 7 studies were randomized but not blinded and had moderate quality; and 4 nonrandomized studies had low quality. In 6 studies, yoga was used to treat patients with back pain; in 2 studies to treat rheumatoid arthritis; in 2 studies to treat patients with headache/migraine; and 6 studies enrolled individuals for other indications. All studies reported positive effects in favor of the yoga interventions. With respect to pain, a random effect meta-analysis estimated the overall treatment effect at SMD = −.74 (CI: −.97; −.52, P < .0001), and an overall treatment effect at SMD = −.79 (CI: −1.02; −.56, P < .0001) for pain-related disability. Despite some limitations, there is evidence that yoga may be useful for several pain-associated disorders. Moreover, there are hints that even short-term interventions might be effective. Nevertheless, large-scale further studies have to identify which patients may benefit from the respective interventions.


      This meta-analysis suggests that yoga is a useful supplementary approach with moderate effect sizes on pain and associated disability.

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