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Distinguishing Features of Cancer Patients Who Smoke: Pain, Symptom Burden, and Risk for Opioid Misuse

Published:September 25, 2012DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2012.07.012

      Abstract

      Although many cancer patients who have pain are smokers, the extent of their symptom burden and risk for opioid misuse are not well understood. In this study we analyzed records of patients being treated for cancer pain, 94 of whom were smokers and 392 of whom were nonsmokers, to determine smoking status group differences. Smokers had significantly higher pain intensity, fatigue, depression, and anxiety than nonsmokers (independent samples t-tests P < .002). Smokers were at higher risk for opioid misuse based on the short form of the Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain (SOAPP). Specifically, smokers had more frequent problems with mood swings, taking medications other than how they are prescribed, a history of illegal drug use, and a history of legal problems (chi-square tests P ≤ .002). Changes in pain and opioid use were examined in a subset of patients (146 nonsmokers and 46 smokers) who were receiving opioid therapy on at least 2 of the 3 data time points (consult, follow-up 1 month after consult, follow-up 6 to 9 months after consult). Results based on multilevel linear modeling showed that over a period of approximately 6 months, smokers continued to report significantly higher pain than nonsmokers. Both smokers and nonsmokers reported a significant decline in pain across the 6-month period; the rate of decline did not differ across smokers and nonsmokers. No significant difference over time was found in opioid use between smokers and nonsmokers. These findings will guide subsequent studies and inform clinical practice, particularly the relevancy of smoking cessation.

      Perspective

      This article describes pain, symptom burden, and risk for opioid misuse among cancer patients with pain across smoking status. Smoking appears to be a potential mechanism for having an increased pain and symptom burden and risk for opioid misuse. This improved understanding of cancer pain will inform clinical practice.

      Key words

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