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Validation of the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire-2 in Younger and Older People With Cancer Pain

  • Lynn R. Gauthier
    Affiliations
    School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • Alycia Young
    Affiliations
    School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • Robert H. Dworkin
    Affiliations
    Departments of Anesthesiology and Neurology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York
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  • Gary Rodin
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychosocial Oncology and Palliative Care, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • Camilla Zimmermann
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychosocial Oncology and Palliative Care, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • David Warr
    Affiliations
    Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 Deceased.
    S. Lawrence Librach
    Footnotes
    1 Deceased.
    Affiliations
    Department of Family and Community Medicine, Division of Palliative Care, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • Malcolm Moore
    Affiliations
    Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • Frances A. Shepherd
    Affiliations
    Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • Rebecca Pillai Riddell
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Department of Psychiatry, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • Alison Macpherson
    Affiliations
    School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • Ronald Melzack
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
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  • Lucia Gagliese
    Correspondence
    Address reprint requests to Lucia Gagliese, PhD, Toronto General Hospital 9-EN-236A, 200 Elizabeth St, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 2C4.
    Affiliations
    School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Department of Psychosocial Oncology and Palliative Care, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 Deceased.

      Abstract

      Pain is among the most common symptoms of cancer. Because cancer can occur at any age, it is imperative that pain assessment tools are valid for use across the adult lifespan. The Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire–2 (SF-MPQ-2) is a valid and reliable tool for the assessment of the multidimensional qualities of pain in people with chronic nonmalignant pain, but its psychometric properties in people with cancer pain and in older versus younger people require investigation. This study evaluated age differences in the validity, reliability, and use of the SF-MPQ-2 in 244 people with advanced cancer and pain. We confirmed the previously reported 4-factor solution in older (≥60 years) and younger (<60 years) patients. Internal consistency reliability and convergent validity were similar across age groups, although the SF-MPQ-2 sensory subscales were correlated with mental health quality of life in older, but not younger, patients. Older and younger patients selected the same words with the same intensity to describe their pain. The most commonly selected words in both age groups were aching, tiring-exhausting, sharp, and dull. These results demonstrate that the SF-MPQ-2 is appropriate for use across the adult lifespan in people with cancer pain.

      Perspective

      This study demonstrated that the SF-MPQ-2 is valid for use in older and younger people with advanced cancer and pain. This measure could improve cancer pain assessment across the adult lifespan, which may lead to improved pain management.

      Key words

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