- •This study describes patterns in prevalence and comorbidity of pain at various anatomical sites.
- •All pain sites were associated with all other pain sites as well as with anxious depression.
- •Relationships with sex and age depended strongly on the pain site.
- •These findings suggest shared as well as specific mechanisms involved in pain at different sites.
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
- Manual for the ASEBA Adult Forms & Profiles.Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT2003
- Epidemiological features of chronic low-back pain.Lancet. 1999; 354: 581-585
- Understanding the co-occurrence of anxiety disorders and chronic pain: State-of-the-art.Depress Anxiety. 2009; 26: 888-901
- Musculoskeletal pain combinations in adolescents.Spine. 2009; 34: 1192-1197
- Depression and pain comorbidity: A literature review.Arch Intern Med. 2003; 163: 2433-2445
- Netherlands Twin Register: From twins to twin families.Twin Res Hum Genet. 2006; 9: 849-857
- Netherlands Twin Register: A focus on longitudinal research.Twin Res. 2002; 5: 401-406
- Prevalence of fibromyalgia: A survey in five European countries.Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2010; 39: 448-453
- Survey of chronic pain in Europe: Prevalence, impact on daily life, and treatment.Eur J Pain. 2006; 10: 287-333
- The impact of migraine: Epidemiology, risk factors, and co-morbidities.Neurology. 2001; 56: S4
- Chronic pain syndromes: You can't have one without another.Pain. 2007; 131: 237-238
- Pain modulation: Expectation, opioid analgesia and virtual pain.Prog Brain Res. 1999; 122: 245-253
- Sex, gender, and pain: A review of recent clinical and experimental findings.J Pain. 2009; 10: 447-485
- The burden of chronic low back pain: Clinical comorbidities, treatment patterns, and health care costs in usual care settings.Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012; 37: E668-E677
- A cross-national study of the course of persistent pain in primary care.Pain. 2001; 92: 195-200
- Prevalence of chronic pain in a representative sample in the United States.Pain Med. 2008; 9: 803-812
- The association between anxiety, depression, and somatic symptoms in a large population: The HUNT-II study.Psychosom Med. 2004; 66: 845-851
- Co-occurrence of musculoskeletal pain among female kitchen workers.Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2006; 80: 141-148
- Impact of sex hormonal changes on tension-type headache and migraine: A cross-sectional population-based survey in 2,600 women.J Headache Pain. 2012; 13: 557-565
- Medical symptoms without identified pathology: Relationship to psychiatric disorders, childhood and adult trauma, and personality traits.Ann intern Med. 2001; 134: 917-925
- Major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Same genes, (partly) different environments?.Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1992; 49: 716-722
- Experimental approaches in the study of pain in the elderly.Pain Med. 2012; 13: S44-S50
- The epidemiology of pain in depression.Hum Psychopharmacol. 2004; 19: S3-S7
- Anxiety and depression are associated with migraine and pain in general: An investigation of the interrelationships.J Pain. 2013; 14: 363-370
- A simple examination of the relationships between pain, organic lesions and psychiatric illness.Pain. 1987; 29: 295-300
- Depression and anxiety associated with three pain conditions: Results from a nationally representative sample.Pain. 2004; 111: 77-83
Muthén LK, Muthén BO. Mplus User's Guide, 5th ed. Los Angeles, Muthén & Muthén, 2007
- A systematic literature review of 10 years of research on sex/gender and experimental pain perception, Part 1: Are there really differences between women and men?.Pain. 2012; 153: 602-618
- Somatic comorbidities of irritable bowel syndrome: A systematic analysis.J Psychosom Res. 2008; 64: 573-582
- Gender differences in chronic pain—Findings from a population-based study of Norwegian adults.Pain Manag Nurs. 2004; 5: 105-117
- Prevalence and characteristics of chronic pain in the general Norwegian population.Eur J Pain. 2004; 8: 555-565
- Epidemiology of tension-type headache.JAMA. 1998; 279: 381-383
- Prevalence of migraine headache in the United States. Relation to age, income, race, and other sociodemographic factors.JAMA. 1992; 267: 64-69
- Symptoms by age and sex: The population studies of men and women in Gothenburg, Sweden.Scand J Prim Health Care. 1990; 8: 9-17
Verhulst FC, van der Ende J, Koot JM: Handleiding voor de Youth Self-Report (YSR): Afdeling Kinder-en Jeugdpsychiatrie, Sophia Kinderziekenhuis/Academisch Ziekenhuis Rotterdam/Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, 1997
- Prevalence of cervical spinal pain in craniomandibular pain patients.Eur J Oral Sci. 2001; 109: 76-80
- An epidemiologic comparison of pain complaints.Pain. 1988; 32: 173-183
- Grading the severity of chronic pain.Pain. 1992; 50: 133-149
- The relationship between pain and depression.Br J Psychiatry. 1996; 168: 101-108
- The Adult Netherlands Twin Register: 25 years of survey and biological data collection.Twin Res Hum Genet. 2013; 16: 271-281
This study was supported by the European Research Council (ERC-230374 and ERC-284167), the EMGO+ Institute for Health and Care research, and the Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam (NCA). L.L. is supported by an EFIC-Grünenthal Grant.
The authors declare no conflict of interest.