- •Spatial summation exists for electrical stimuli, even at 20-cm separations.
- •Pain was greater for paired stimuli than for a single stimulus of equal intensity.
- •Pain was greater when paired stimuli were at 5-, 10-, and 20-cm separations.
- •Area- and distance-based spatial summation exists for electrical stimuli.
- •The findings suggest a proximal-distal gradient in nociceptive sensitivity.
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The authors declare that they have no competing interests that are directly related to the content of this manuscript. D.H. is supported by a postgraduate award from the Australian Government, and the Vice Chancellor's award from the University of South Australia. G.L.M. is supported by a research fellowship from the National Health & Medical Research Council of Australia (ID 1061279). This study was supported by NHMRC Grant ID 1008017.