- •This study investigated the association between opioid use, pain and depression at a pain clinic.
- •Depression moderated the relation between opioid use, pain severity and physical functioning.
- •In non-depressed patients, opioid use increased as pain increased and functioning decreased.
- •In depressed patients, the probability of taking opioids did not change based on pain or functioning.
- •Unraveling the role of depression in the context of opioid use in clinical settings is a key next step.
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Supported by Pfizer, Forest, Cypress Biosciences, Merck, Nuvo, Cerephex (D.J.C.), ASRA Pain Research Grant (C.M.B. and A.L.H.), and Bristol-Myers Squibb (A.L.H.).
D.J.C. is a current board member of Pfizer, current consultant for Forest, Cypress, Biosciences, Merck, Nuvo, Cerephex, Eli Lilly, Pierre Fabre, Wyeth, UCB, Astra Zeneca, Johnson and Johnson, Jazz, Abbott, Tonix, and Therevance; C.M.B. was funded by Neuros Medical Inc for other research, has a patent (current/no royalties) on Peripheral Perineural Dexmedetomidine, and is a consultant for Tonix Pharmaceuticals; A.L.H. is currently a consultant for Lexicon Pharmaceuticals and Precision Health Economica, a past consultant for Pfizer, Inc and Bristol-Myers Squibb; and has a patent (current/no royalties) on Peripheral Perineural Dexmedetomidine. J.G., S.E.M, M.J.H., and M.R. have no conflicts of interest to report.