- •Opioids are commonly used in the NICU and have both beneficial and adverse short-term effects.
- •Long-term follow-up studies on neonatal morphine administration in humans are scarce.
- •Neonatal morphine infusion has no long-term adverse effects on thermal pain thresholds.
- •No effects on neurological functioning or incidence of chronic pain have been observed.
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None of the authors report financial relationships that are relevant to this work. None of the authors report a conflict of interest.