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Comorbidity of Mental Disorders and Chronic Pain: Chronology of Onset in Adolescents of a National Representative Cohort

      Highlights

      • We examined the co-occurrence of chronic pain and mental disorders in adolescents.
      • The prevalence of the co-occurrence of chronic pain and mental disorders was 25.93%.
      • All types of chronic pain were associated with mental disorders.
      • Mental disorders preceded onset of chronic pain, but not vice versa.
      • Integrative care might improve prevention and intervention for chronic pain.

      Abstract

      This study sought to estimate 1) the prevalence of the co-occurrence of, 2) the association between, and 3) the sequence of onset of chronic pain and mental disorders in adolescents. We used weighted data (N = 6,483) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (participants' age, 13–18 years). Lifetime chronic pain was assessed by adolescent self-report; lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed by the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview, complemented by parent report. Among the participants in the study, 1,600 of 6,476 (25.93%) had experienced any type of chronic pain and any mental disorder in their lifetime. All types of pain were related to mental disorders. The most substantial temporal associations were those with onset of mental disorders preceding onset of chronic pain, including those between affective disorders and headaches and any chronic pain; between anxiety disorders and chronic back/neck pain, headaches, and any chronic pain; between behavior disorders and headaches and any chronic pain; and between any mental disorder and chronic back/neck pain, headaches, and any chronic pain.

      Perspective

      Findings indicate that affective, anxiety, and behavior disorders are early risk factors of chronic pain, thereby highlighting the relevance of child mental disorders for pain medicine. To improve prevention and interventions for chronic pain, integrative care should be considered.

      Key words

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