- •The literature regarding risk and prognostic factors for headaches was reviewed.
- •There is still limited knowledge and poor quality of evidence.
- •Female sex is a probable risk factor for onset of headaches.
- •Comorbid anxiety/depression is a probable prognostic factor for persistence of headaches.
- •Further research is needed.
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This research is funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (grant 226950). P.J.M.'s research is supported by a Canada Research Chair. J.H. holds a Professorship in Epidemiology supported by Dalhousie University and the Canadian Chiropractic Research Foundation.
The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.