- •Limb pain evokes an ipsilateral form of conditioned pain modulation.
- •Opioid peptides mediate this response in the painful limb and ipsilateral forehead.
- •These inhibitory opioid influences override opposing α2-adrenoceptor effects.
- •Failure of this ipsilateral opioid response may aggravate chronic limb or head pain.
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The study was supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (grant number 437205). The funding body had no role in the design, conduct, analysis or reporting of the study.
The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.