- •More aversive laboratory tests deterred participants.
- •Greater study payment motivated participants' randomized clinical trial selection.
- •Continuing concomitant pain medications were an incentive for participants.
- •Concomitant medications and payment may counteract aversive laboratory tests.
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S.M.S. and J.S.G. contributed equally to this work.
Financial support for this project was provided by the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION) public-private partnership with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). ACTTION has received research contracts, grants, or other revenue from the FDA, multiple pharmaceutical and device companies, and other sources. No official endorsement by the FDA or the pharmaceutical and device companies that have provided unrestricted grants to support the activities of ACTTION should be inferred.
The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.