- •Most studies of 3- and 4-year-olds’ pain ratings aggregate data with older children.
- •Most 3-year-olds cannot reliably and validly use self-report pain intensity scales.
- •Many 4-year-olds can provide meaningful scores using self-report pain intensity scales.
- •Pain scales with fewer response options are more suitable for young children.
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T.J. is supported by the Sydney Children's Hospital Foundation.
The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.