- •Patients with chronic pain had the highest probability of continued opioid use.
- •Long-term opioid use was uncommon for other conditions (<7% at 1 year).
- •Initiation with tramadol or long-acting opioids increases likelihood of continued use.
- •The days supplied for the first opioid prescription is the strongest predictor of continued opioid use.
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Data obtained for this project was supported by the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Translational Research Institute, National Institutes of Health grant UL1TR000039. C.J.H. was supported by the Translational Training in Addiction (1T32 DA 022981).
The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.