Advertisement

The Role of Self-Efficacy on the Prognosis of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: A Systematic Review

Published:September 19, 2017DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2017.08.008

      Highlights

      • High self-efficacy is associated with lower levels of pain and disability.
      • Depressive symptoms are negatively associated with self-efficacy.
      • Higher self-efficacy levels are associated with better physical functioning.

      Abstract

      Evidence suggests that self-efficacy can play an essential role as a protective factor as well as a mediator in the relationship between pain and disability in people suffering from chronic musculoskeletal pain. This study systematically reviewed and critically appraised the role of self-efficacy on the prognosis of chronic musculoskeletal pain. Study selection was on the basis of longitudinal studies testing the prognostic value of self-efficacy in chronic musculoskeletal pain. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, the Cochrane Collaboration's tool, and the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies checklist were used to evaluate the risk of bias of included studies. A total of 27 articles met the inclusion criteria. Our results suggest that higher self-efficacy levels are associated with greater physical functioning, physical activity participation, health status, work status, satisfaction with the performance, efficacy beliefs, and lower levels of pain intensity, disability, disease activity, depressive symptoms, presence of tender points, fatigue, and presenteeism. Despite the low quality of evidence of included studies, clinicians should be encouraged identify people with chronic musculoskeletal pain who present low self-efficacy levels before prescribing any therapy. It may help clinicians in their clinical decision-making and timely and specific consultations with—or referral to—other health care providers.

      Perspective

      This article presents promising results about the role of self-efficacy on the prognosis of chronic musculoskeletal pain. However, because of the low quality of evidence of included studies, these findings should be taken with caution, and further research is needed.

      Key words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
      Subscribe to The Journal of Pain
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Adom T.
        • Puoane T.
        • De Villiers A.
        • Kengne A.P.
        Prevalence of obesity and overweight in African learners: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.
        BMJ Open. 2017; 7: e013538
        • Alok R.
        • Das S.K.
        • Agarwal G.G.
        • Tiwari S.C.
        • Salwahan L.
        • Srivastava R.
        Problem-focused coping and self-efficacy as correlates of quality of life and severity of fibromyalgia in primary fibromyalgia patients.
        J Clin Rheumatol. 2014; 20: 314-316
        • Altmaier E.M.
        • Russell D.W.
        • Kao C.F.
        • Lehmann T.R.
        • Weinstein J.N.
        Role of self-efficacy in rehabilitation outcome among chronic low back pain patients.
        J Couns Psychol. 1993; 40: 335-339
        • Ang D.C.
        • Bair M.J.
        • Damush T.M.
        • Wu J.
        • Tu W.
        • Kroenke K.
        Predictors of pain outcomes in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain co-morbid with depression: Results from a randomized controlled trial.
        Pain Med. 2010; 11: 482-491
        • Atkins D.
        • Best D.
        • Briss P.A.
        • Eccles M.
        • Falck-Ytter Y.
        • Flottorp S.
        • Guyatt G.H.
        • Harbour R.T.
        • Haugh M.C.
        • Henry D.
        • Hill S.
        • Jaeschke R.
        • Leng G.
        • Liberati A.
        • Magrini N.
        • Mason J.
        • Middleton P.
        • Mrukowicz J.
        • O'Connell D.
        • Oxman A.D.
        • Phillips B.
        • Schünemann H.J.
        • Edejer T.
        • Varonen H.
        • Vist G.E.
        • Williams Jr, J.W.
        • Zaza S.
        • GRADE Working Group
        Grading quality of evidence and strength of recommendations.
        BMJ. 2004; 328: 1490
        • Bandura A.
        Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change.
        Psychol Rev. 1977; 84: 191
        • Bandura A.
        Self-efficacy determinants of anticipated fears and calamities.
        J Pers Soc Psychol. 1983; 45: 464-469
        • Barlow J.H.
        Understanding exercise in the context of chronic disease: An exploratory investigation of self-efficacy.
        Percept Mot Skills. 1998; 87: 439-446
        • Bérubé M.
        • Choinière M.
        • Laflamme Y.G.
        • Gélinas C.
        Acute to chronic pain transition in extremity trauma: A narrative review for future preventive interventions (part 2).
        Int J Orthop Trauma Nurs. 2017; 24: 59-67
        • Bishop F.L.
        • Yardley L.
        • Prescott P.
        • Cooper C.
        • Little P.
        • Lewith G.T.
        Psychological covariates of longitudinal changes in back-related disability in patients undergoing acupuncture.
        Clin J Pain. 2015; 31: 254-264
        • Breivik H.
        • Collett B.
        • Ventafridda V.
        • Cohen R.
        • Gallacher D.
        Survey of chronic pain in Europe: Prevalence, impact on daily life, and treatment.
        Eur J Pain. 2006; 10: 287-333
        • Brekke M.
        • Hjortdahl P.
        • Kvien T.K.
        Changes in self-efficacy and health status over 5 years: A longitudinal observational study of 306 patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
        Arthritis Rheum. 2003; 49: 342-348
        • Buckelew S.P.
        • Huyser B.
        • Hewett J.E.
        • Parker J.C.
        • Johnson J.C.
        • Conway R.
        • Kay D.R.
        Self-efficacy predicting outcome among fibromyalgia subjects.
        Arthritis Care Res. 1996; 9: 97-104
        • Burke A.L.
        • Mathias J.L.
        • Denson L.A.
        Psychological functioning of people living with chronic pain: A meta-analytic review.
        Br J Clin Psychol. 2015; 54: 345-360
        • Bushnell M.C.
        • Čeko M.
        • Low L.A.
        Cognitive and emotional control of pain and its disruption in chronic pain.
        Nat Rev Neurosci. 2013; 14: 502-511
        • Cagnie B.
        • Coppieters I.
        • Denecker S.
        • Six J.
        • Danneels L.
        • Meeus M.
        Central sensitization in fibromyalgia? A systematic review on structural and functional brain MRI.
        Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2014; 44: 68-75
        • Campbell P.
        • Foster N.E.
        • Thomas E.
        • Dunn K.M.
        Prognostic indicators of low back pain in primary care: Five-Year Prospective Study.
        J Pain. 2013; 14: 873-883
        • Chester R.
        • Jerosch-Herold C.
        • Lewis J.
        • Shepstone L.
        Psychological factors are associated with the outcome of physiotherapy for people with shoulder pain: A multicentre longitudinal cohort study.
        Br J Sports Med. 2016;
        • Cimmino M.A.
        • Ferrone C.
        • Cutolo M.
        Epidemiology of chronic musculoskeletal pain.
        Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2011; 25: 173-183
        • Coppieters I.
        • Meeus M.
        • Kregel J.
        • Caeyenberghs K.
        • De Pauw R.
        • Goubert D.
        • Cagnie B.
        Relations between brain alterations and clinical pain measures in chronic musculoskeletal pain: A systematic review.
        J Pain. 2016; 17: 949-962
        • Costa Lda C.
        • Maher C.G.
        • McAuley J.H.
        • Hancock M.J.
        • Smeets R.J.
        Self-efficacy is more important than fear of movement in mediating the relationship between pain and disability in chronic low back pain.
        Eur J Pain. 2011; 15: 213-219
        • Croft P.
        • Altman D.G.
        • Deeks J.J.
        • Dunn K.M.
        • Hay A.D.
        • Hemingway H.
        • LeResche L.
        • Peat G.
        • Perel P.
        • Petersen S.E.
        • Riley R.D.
        • Roberts I.
        • Sharpe M.
        • Stevens R.J.
        • Van Der Windt D.A.
        • Von Korff M.
        • Timmis A.
        The science of clinical practice: Disease diagnosis or patient prognosis? Evidence about “what is likely to happen” should shape clinical practice.
        BMC Med. 2015; 13: 1-8
        • Damush T.M.
        • Kroenke K.
        • Bair M.J.
        • Wu J.
        • Tu W.
        • Krebs E.E.
        • Poleshuck E.
        Pain self-management training increases self-efficacy, self-management behaviours and pain and depression outcomes.
        Eur J Pain. 2016; 20: 1070-1078
        • Demmelmaier I.
        • Asenlof P.
        • Lindberg P.
        • Denison E.
        Biopsychosocial predictors of pain, disability, health care consumption, and sick leave in first-episode and long-term back pain: A longitudinal study in the general population.
        Int J Behav Med. 2010; 17: 79-89
        • Denison E.
        • Asenlöf P.
        • Lindberg P.
        Self-efficacy, fear avoidance, and pain intensity as predictors of disability in subacute and chronic musculoskeletal pain patients in primary health care.
        Pain. 2004; 111: 245-252
        • Dobkin P.L.
        • Liu A.
        • Abrahamowicz M.
        • Ionescu-Ittu R.
        • Bernatsky S.
        • Goldberger A.
        • Baron M.
        Predictors of disability and pain six months after the end of treatment for fibromyalgia.
        Clin J Pain. 2010; 26: 23-29
        • Dueñas M.
        • Ojeda B.
        • Salazar A.
        • Mico J.A.
        • Failde I.
        A review of chronic pain impact on patients, their social environment and the health care system.
        J Pain Res. 2016; 9: 457-467
        • Dworkin R.H.
        • Bruehl S.
        • Fillingim R.B.
        • Loeser J.D.
        • Terman G.W.
        • Turk D.C.
        Multidimensional diagnostic criteria for chronic pain: Introduction to the ACTTION-American Pain Society Pain Taxonomy (AAPT).
        J Pain. 2016; 17: T1-T9
        • Engebretsen K.
        • Grotle M.
        • Bautz-Holter E.
        • Ekeberg O.M.
        • Brox J.I.
        Predictors of shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI) and work status after 1 year in patients with subacromial shoulder pain.
        BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2010; 11: 218
        • Falla D.
        • Peolsson A.
        • Peterson G.
        • Ludvigsson M.L.
        • Soldini E.
        • Schneebeli A.
        • Barbero M.
        Perceived pain extent is associated with disability, depression and self-efficacy in individuals with whiplash-associated disorders.
        Eur J Pain. 2016; 20: 1490-1501
        • Ferreira-Valente M.A.
        • Pais-Ribeiro J.L.
        • Jensen M.P.
        Associations between psychosocial factors and pain intensity, physical functioning, and psychological functioning in patients with chronic pain: A cross-cultural comparison.
        Clin J Pain. 2014; 30: 713-723
        • Foster N.E.
        • Thomas E.
        • Bishop A.
        • Dunn K.M.
        • Main C.J.
        Distinctiveness of psychological obstacles to recovery in low back pain patients in primary care.
        Pain. 2010; 148: 398-406
        • Garland E.L.
        Pain processing in the human nervous system. a selective review of nociceptive and biobehavioral pathways.
        Prim Care. 2012; 39: 561-571
        • Gassi Macedo L.
        • Maher C.G.
        • Hancock M.
        • Kamper S.J.
        • McAuley J.H.
        • Stanton T.R.
        • Stafford R.
        • Hodges P.W.
        Predicting response to motor control exercises and graded activity for patients with low back pain: Preplanned secondary analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial.
        Phys Ther. 2014; 94: 1543-1554
        • Gere J.
        • Martire L.M.
        • Keefe F.J.
        • Stephens M.A.
        • Schulz R.
        Spouse confidence in self-efficacy for arthritis management predicts improved patient health.
        Ann Behav Med. 2014; 48: 337-346
        • Greenberg D.L.
        Evaluation and treatment of shoulder pain.
        Med Clin North Am. 2014; 98: 487-504
        • Guyatt G.H.
        • Oxman A.D.
        • Vist G.E.
        • Kunz R.
        • Falck-Ytter Y.
        • Alonso-Coello P.
        • Schünemann H.J.
        • GRADE Working Group
        GRADE: An emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations.
        BMJ. 2008; 336: 924-926
        • Haglund E.
        • Petersson I.F.
        • Bremander A.
        • Bergman S.
        Predictors of presenteeism and activity impairment outside work in patients with spondyloarthritis.
        J Occup Rehabil. 2015; 25: 288-295
        • Higgins J.P.
        • Altman D.G.
        • Gøtzsche P.C.
        • Jüni P.
        • Moher D.
        • Oxman A.D.
        • Savovic J.
        • Schulz K.F.
        • Weeks L.
        • Sterne J.A.
        • Cochrane Bias Methods Group
        • Cochrane Statistical Methods Group
        The Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials.
        Br Med J. 2011; 343: 889-893
        • Imai K.
        • Keele L.
        • Tingley D.
        A general approach to causal mediation analysis.
        Psychol Methods. 2010; 15: 309-334
        • International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP)
        Unrelieved pain is a major global healthcare problem.
        (Available at:)
        • Iversen M.D.
        • Frits M.
        • von Heideken J.
        • Cui J.
        • Weinblatt M.
        • Shadick N.A.
        Physical activity and correlates of physical activity participation over three years in adults with rheumatoid arthritis.
        Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2017; 69: 1535-1545
        • Jackson T.
        • Wang Y.
        • Wang Y.
        • Fan H.
        Self-efficacy and chronic pain outcomes: A meta-analytic review.
        J Pain. 2014; 15: 800-814
        • Karlsson L.
        • Gerdle B.
        • Takala E.P.
        • Andersson G.
        • Larsson B.
        Associations between psychological factors and the effect of home-based physical exercise in women with chronic neck and shoulder pain.
        SAGE Open Med. 2016; 4 (2050312116668933)
        • Leeuw M.
        • Goossens M.E.
        • Linton S.J.
        • Crombez G.
        • Boersma K.
        • Vlaeyen J.W.
        The fear-avoidance model of musculoskeletal pain: Current state of scientific evidence.
        J Behav Med. 2007; 30: 77-94
        • Liberati A.
        • Altman D.G.
        • Tetzlaff J.
        • Mulrow C.
        • Gøtzsche P.C.
        • Ioannidis J.P.
        • Clarke M.
        • Devereaux P.J.
        • Kleijnen J.
        • Moher D.
        The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: Explanation and elaboration.
        J Clin Epidemiol. 2009; 62: e1-e34
        • Linsell L.
        • Dawson J.
        • Zondervan K.
        • Rose P.
        • Randall T.
        • Fitzpatrick R.
        • Carr A.
        Prevalence and incidence of adults consulting for shoulder conditions in UK primary care; patterns of diagnosis and referral.
        Rheumatology (Oxford). 2006; 45: 215-221
        • Lluch E.
        • Torres R.
        • Nijs J.
        • Van Oosterwijck J.
        Evidence for central sensitization in patients with osteoarthritis pain: A systematic literature review.
        Eur J Pain. 2014; 18: 1367-1375
        • Lowe R.
        • Cockshott Z.
        • Greenwood R.
        • Kirwan J.R.
        • Almeida C.
        • Richards P.
        • Hewlett S.
        Self-efficacy as an appraisal that moderates the coping-emotion relationship: Associations among people with rheumatoid arthritis.
        Psychol Health. 2008; 23: 155-174
        • Lötters F.
        • Franche R.L.
        • Hogg-Johnson S.
        • Burdorf A.
        • Pole J.D.
        The prognostic value of depressive symptoms, fear-avoidance, and self-efficacy for duration of lost-time benefits in workers with musculoskeletal disorders.
        Occup Environ Med. 2006; 63: 794-801
        • Mallows A.
        • Debenham J.
        • Walker T.
        • Littlewood C.
        Association of psychological variables and outcome in tendinopathy: A systematic review.
        Br J Sports Med. 2016; 541: 743-748
        • Mielenz T.J.
        • Kubiak-Rizzone K.L.
        • Alvarez K.J.
        • Hlavacek P.R.
        • Freburger J.K.
        • Giuliani C.
        • Mercer V.S.
        • Callahan L.F.
        Association of self-efficacy and outcome expectations with physical activity in adults with arthritis.
        Arthritis. 2013; 2013: 621396
        • Nahman-Averbuch H.
        • Nir R.R.
        • Sprecher E.
        • Yarnitsky D.
        Psychological factors and conditioned pain modulation: A meta-analysis.
        Clin J Pain. 2016; 32: 541-554
        • Nash V.R.
        • Ponto J.
        • Townsend C.
        • Nelson P.
        • Bretz M.N.
        Cognitive behavioral therapy, self-efficacy, and depression in persons with chronic pain.
        Pain Manag Nurs. 2013; 14: e236-e243
        • Park S.J.
        • Yoon D.M.
        • Yoon K.B.
        • Moon J.A.
        • Kim S.H.
        Factors associated with higher reported pain levels in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain: A cross-sectional, correlational analysis.
        PLoS One. 2016; 11 (e0163132)
        • Parker J.C.
        • Callahan C.D.
        • Smarr K.L.
        • McClure K.W.
        • Stucky-Ropp R.C.
        • Anderson S.K.
        • Walker S.E.
        Relationship of pain behavior to disease activity and health status in rheumatoid arthritis.
        Arthritis Care Res. 1993; 6: 71-77
        • Patel A.S.
        • Farquharson R.
        • Carroll D.
        • Moore A.
        • Phillips C.J.
        • Taylor R.S.
        • Barden J.
        The impact and burden of chronic pain in the workplace: A qualitative systematic review.
        Pain Pract. 2012; 12: 578-589
        • Picha K.J.
        • Howell D.M.
        A model to increase rehabilitation adherence to home exercise programmes in patients with varying levels of self-efficacy.
        Musculoskeletal Care. 2017;
        • Rajati F.
        • Sadeghi M.
        • Feizi A.
        • Sharifirad G.
        • Hasandokht T.
        • Mostafavi F.
        Self-efficacy strategies to improve exercise in patients with heart failure: A systematic review.
        ARYA Atheroscler. 2014; 10: 319-333
        • Reid K.J.
        • Harker J.
        • Bala M.M.
        • Truyers C.
        • Kellen E.
        • Bekkering G.E.
        • Kleijnen J.
        Epidemiology of chronic non-cancer pain in Europe: Narrative review of prevalence, pain treatments and pain impact.
        Curr Med Res Opin. 2011; 27: 449-462
        • Rejeski W.J.
        • Ettinger W.H.
        • Martin K.
        • Morgan T.
        Treating disability in knee osteoarthritis with exercise therapy: A central role for self-efficacy and pain.
        Arthritis Care Res. 1998; 11: 94-101
        • Rejeski W.J.
        • Ettinger W.H.
        • Schumaker S.
        • James P.
        • Burns R.
        • Elam J.T.
        Assessing performance-related disability in patients with knee osteoarthritis.
        Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 1995; 3: 157-167
        • Rejeski W.J.
        • Miller M.E.
        • Foy C.
        • Messier S.
        • Rapp S.
        Self-efficacy and the progression of functional limitations and self-reported disability in older adults with knee pain.
        J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2001; 56: 261-265
        • Sanchis M.N.
        • Lluch E.
        • Nijs J.
        • Struyf F.
        • Kangasperko M.
        The role of central sensitization in shoulder pain: A systematic literature review.
        Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2014; 44: 710-716
        • Schünemann H.J.
        • Brozek J.
        GRADEpro Guideline Development Tool.
        McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada2015
        • Sharma L.
        • Cahue S.
        • Song J.
        • Hayes K.
        • Pai Y.C.
        • Dunlop D.
        Physical functioning over three years in knee osteoarthritis: Role of psychosocial, local mechanical, and neuromuscular factors.
        Arthritis Rheum. 2003; 48: 3359-3370
        • Shea B.J.
        • Grimshaw J.M.
        • Wells G.A.
        • Boers M.
        • Andersson N.
        • Hamel C.
        • Porter A.C.
        • Tugwell P.
        • Moher D.
        • Bouter L.M.
        Development of AMSTAR: A measurement tool to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews.
        BMC Med Res Methodol. 2007; 7: 10
        • Simons L.E.
        • Elman I.
        • Borsook D.
        Psychological processing in chronic pain: A neural systems approach.
        Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2014; 39: 61-78
        • Skidmore J.R.
        • Koenig A.L.
        • Dyson S.J.
        • Kupper A.E.
        • Garner M.J.
        • Keller C.J.
        Pain self-efficacy mediates the relationship between depressive symptoms and pain severity.
        Clin J Pain. 2015; 31: 137-144
        • Slim K.
        • Nini E.
        • Forestier D.
        • Kwiatkowski F.
        • Panis Y.
        • Chipponi J.
        Methodological index for non-randomized studies (MINORS): Development and validation of a new instrument.
        ANZ J Surg. 2003; 73: 712-716
        • Somers T.J.
        • Wren A.A.
        The context of pain in arthritis: Self-efficacy for managing pain and other symptoms.
        Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2012; 16: 502-508
        • Söderlund A.
        • Lindberg P.
        Cognitive behavioural components in physiotherapy management of chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD)-a randomised group study.
        Physiother Theory Pract. 2001; 17: 229-238
        • Strine T.W.
        • Hootman J.M.
        US national prevalence and correlates of low back and neck pain among adults.
        Arthritis Rheum. 2007; 57: 656-665
        • Stroup D.F.
        • Berlin J.A.
        • Morton S.C.
        • Olkin I.
        • Williamson G.D.
        • Rennie D.
        • Moher D.
        • Becker B.J.
        • Sipe T.A.
        • Thacker S.B.
        Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: A proposal for reporting. Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) group.
        JAMA. 2000; 283: 2008-2012
        • Thompson E.L.
        • Broadbent J.
        • Bertino M.D.
        • Staiger P.K.
        Do pain-related beliefs influence adherence to multidisciplinary rehabilitation? A systematic review.
        Clin J Pain. 2015; 32: 164-178
        • Tsang A.
        • Von Korff M.
        • Lee S.
        • Alonso J.
        • Karam E.
        • Angermeyer M.C.
        • Borges G.L.
        • Bromet E.J.
        • Demytteneare K.
        • de Girolamo G.
        • de Graaf R.
        • Gureje O.
        • Lepine J.P.
        • Haro J.M.
        • Levinson D.
        • Oakley Browne M.A.
        • Posada-Villa J.
        • Seedat S.
        • Watanabe M.
        Common chronic pain conditions in developed and developing countries: Gender and age differences and comorbidity with depression-anxiety disorders.
        J Pain. 2008; 9: 883-891
        • Turk D.C.
        • Okifuji A.
        Psychological factors in chronic pain: Evolution and revolution.
        J Consult Clin Psychol. 2002; 70: 678-690
        • Turner J.A.
        • Anderson M.L.
        • Balderson B.H.
        • Cook A.J.
        • Sherman K.J.
        • Cherkin D.C.
        Mindfulness-based stress reduction and cognitive-behavioral therapy for chronic low back pain: Similar effects on mindfulness, catastrophizing, self-efficacy, and acceptance in a randomized controlled trial.
        Pain. 2016; 157: 2434-2444
        • Van Liew C.
        • Brown K.C.
        • Cronan T.A.
        • Bigatti S.M.
        The effects of self-efficacy on depression and pain in fibromyalgia syndrome: Does initial depression matter?.
        J Musculoskelet Pain. 2013; 21: 113-125
        • Van Liew C.
        • Brown K.C.
        • Cronan T.A.
        • Bigatti S.M.
        • Kothari D.J.
        Predictors of pain and functioning over time in fibromyalgia syndrome: An autoregressive path analysis.
        Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2013; 65: 251-256
        • Van Oosterwijck J.
        • Nijs J.
        • Meeus M.
        • Paul L.
        Evidence for central sensitization in chronic whiplash: A systematic literature review.
        Eur J Pain. 2013; 17: 299-312
        • Vlaeyen J.W.
        • Kole-Snijders A.M.
        • Boeren R.G.
        • van Eek H.
        Fear of movement/(re)injury in chronic low back pain and its relation to behavioral performance.
        Pain. 1995; 62: 363-372
        • Vlaeyen J.W.
        • Kole-Snijders A.M.
        • Rotteveel A.M.
        • Ruesink R.
        • Heuts P.H.
        The role of fear of movement/(re)injury in pain disability.
        J Occup Rehabil. 1995; 5: 235-252
        • Vlaeyen J.W.
        • Linton S.J.
        Fear-avoidance and its consequences in chronic musculoskeletal pain: A state of the art.
        Pain. 2000; 85: 317-332
        • Walsh D.A.
        • Jane Kelly S.
        • Sebastian Johnson P.
        • Rajkumar S.
        • Bennetts K.
        Performance problems of patients with chronic low-back pain and the measurement of patient-centered outcome.
        Spine. 2004; 29: 87-93
        • Wells G.A.
        • Shea B.
        • O'Connell D.
        • Peterson J.
        • Welch V.
        • Losos M.
        • Tugwell P.
        The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses.
        (Available at:)
        • Wertli M.M.
        • Eugster R.
        • Held U.
        • Steurer J.
        • Kofmehl R.
        • Weiser S.
        Catastrophizing—A prognostic factor for outcome in patients with low back pain: A systematic review.
        Spine J. 2014; 14: 2639-2657
        • Wertli M.M.
        • Rasmussen-Barr E.
        • Weiser S.
        • Bachmann L.M.
        • Brunner F.
        The role of fear avoidance beliefs as a prognostic factor for outcome in patients with nonspecific low back pain: A systematic review.
        Spine J. 2014; 14 (e4): 816-836
        • Woby S.R.
        • Urmston M.
        • Watson P.J.
        Self-efficacy mediates the relation between pain-related fear and outcome in chronic low back pain patients.
        Eur J Pain. 2007; 11: 711-718
        • Zeng X.
        • Zhang Y.
        • Kwong J.S.
        • Zhang C.
        • Li S.
        • Sun F.
        • Niu Y.
        • Du L.
        The methodological quality assessment tools for preclinical and clinical studies, systematic review and meta-analysis, and clinical practice guideline: A systematic review.
        J Evid Based Med. 2015; 8: 2-10