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Alcohol and Opioid Use in Chronic Pain: A Cross-Sectional Examination of Differences in Functioning Based on Misuse Status

      Highlights

      • Opioid and alcohol misuse was examined in opioid-using people with chronic pain.
      • The percentage of participants not misusing either substance was 35.9%.
      • The percentage of participants misusing both substances was 22.9%.
      • The percentage of participants misusing opioids was 38.2%.
      • The percentage of participants misusing alcohol was 3.1%.
      • No misuse was related to better functioning compared with misuse of opioids or both.

      Abstract

      Opioid misuse is regularly associated with disrupted functioning in those with chronic pain. Less work has examined whether alcohol misuse may also interfere with functioning. This study examined frequency of opioid and alcohol misuse in 131 individuals (61.1% female) prescribed opioids for the treatment of chronic pain. Participants completed an anonymous survey online, consisting of measures of pain, functioning, and opioid and alcohol misuse. Cut scores were used to categorize individuals according to substance misuse status. Individuals were categorized as follows: 35.9% (n = 47) were not misusing either opioids or alcohol, 22.9% (n = 30) were misusing both opioids and alcohol, 38.2% (n = 50) were misusing opioids alone, and only 3.0% (n = 4) were misusing alcohol alone. A multivariate analysis of variance was performed to examine differences in pain and functioning between groups (after excluding individuals in the alcohol misuse group due to the small sample size). Group comparisons indicated that individuals who were not misusing either substance were less disabled and distressed in comparison to those who were misusing opioids alone or both opioids and alcohol. No differences were indicated between the latter 2 groups. Overall, the observed frequency of opioid misuse was somewhat higher in comparison to previous work (approximately 1 out of every 3 participants), and misuse of both alcohol and opioids was common (approximately 1 out of every 5 participants). While these data are preliminary, they do suggest that issues of substance misuse in those with chronic pain extends beyond opioids alone.

      Perspective

      Opioid and alcohol misuse was examined in 131 individuals prescribed opioids for chronic pain. In total, 35.9% were not misusing either, 22.9% were misusing both, 38.2% were misusing opioids, and 3.1% were misusing alcohol. Individuals not misusing either were generally less disabled and distressed compared to those misusing opioids or both.

      Key words

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