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Effects of Different Parameters of Continuous Training and High-Intensity Interval Training in the Chronic Phase of a Mouse Model of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I

  • Luiz Augusto Oliveira Belmonte
    Affiliations
    Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, University of Southern Santa Catarina, Palhoça, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Experimental Neuroscience Laboratory (LaNEx), University of Southern Santa Catarina, Palhoça, Santa Catarina, Brazil
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  • Thiago César Martins
    Affiliations
    Experimental Neuroscience Laboratory (LaNEx), University of Southern Santa Catarina, Palhoça, Santa Catarina, Brazil
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  • Daiana Cristina Salm
    Affiliations
    Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, University of Southern Santa Catarina, Palhoça, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Experimental Neuroscience Laboratory (LaNEx), University of Southern Santa Catarina, Palhoça, Santa Catarina, Brazil
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  • Aline Armiliato Emer
    Affiliations
    Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, University of Southern Santa Catarina, Palhoça, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Experimental Neuroscience Laboratory (LaNEx), University of Southern Santa Catarina, Palhoça, Santa Catarina, Brazil
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  • Bruna Hoffman de Oliveira
    Affiliations
    Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, University of Southern Santa Catarina, Palhoça, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Experimental Neuroscience Laboratory (LaNEx), University of Southern Santa Catarina, Palhoça, Santa Catarina, Brazil
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  • Khiany Mathias
    Affiliations
    Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, University of Southern Santa Catarina, Palhoça, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Laboratory of Neurobiology of Inflammatory and Metabolic Processes, University of Southern Santa Catarina at Tubarão, SC, Brazil
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  • Mariana Pereira Goldim
    Affiliations
    Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, University of Southern Santa Catarina, Palhoça, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Laboratory of Neurobiology of Inflammatory and Metabolic Processes, University of Southern Santa Catarina at Tubarão, SC, Brazil
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  • Verônica Vargas Horewicz
    Affiliations
    Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, University of Southern Santa Catarina, Palhoça, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Experimental Neuroscience Laboratory (LaNEx), University of Southern Santa Catarina, Palhoça, Santa Catarina, Brazil
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  • Anna Paula Piovezan
    Affiliations
    Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, University of Southern Santa Catarina, Palhoça, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Experimental Neuroscience Laboratory (LaNEx), University of Southern Santa Catarina, Palhoça, Santa Catarina, Brazil
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  • Franciane Bobinski
    Affiliations
    Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, University of Southern Santa Catarina, Palhoça, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Experimental Neuroscience Laboratory (LaNEx), University of Southern Santa Catarina, Palhoça, Santa Catarina, Brazil
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  • Fabrícia Petronilho
    Affiliations
    Laboratory of Neurobiology of Inflammatory and Metabolic Processes, University of Southern Santa Catarina at Tubarão, SC, Brazil
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  • Daniel Fernandes Martins
    Correspondence
    Address reprint requests to Daniel F. Martins, PT, PhD, Experimental Neurosciences Laboratory, Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, University of Southern Santa Catarina, Campus Grande Florianópolis, Palhoça, Santa Catarina, Brazil.
    Affiliations
    Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, University of Southern Santa Catarina, Palhoça, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Experimental Neuroscience Laboratory (LaNEx), University of Southern Santa Catarina, Palhoça, Santa Catarina, Brazil
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      Highlights

      • Continuous and interval running decreased mechanical hyperalgesia.
      • Interval and continuous running decreased proinflammatory cytokines levels.
      • Continuous and interval running reduced oxidative damage in the spinal cord.
      • Interval running decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 in the spinal cord.

      Abstract

      This study evaluated the effects of continuous and interval running on a treadmill on mechanical hyperalgesia in an animal model of chronic postischemia pain and analyzed the mechanism of action of this effect. Different groups of male Swiss mice with chronic postischemia pain, induced by 3 hours of paw ischemia followed by reperfusion, ran on the treadmill in different protocols—the speed (10, 13, 16, or 19 m/min), duration (15, 30, or 60 minutes), weekly frequency (3 or 5 times), weekly increase in continuous and interval running speed—were tested. Mechanical hyperalgesia was evaluated by von Frey filament 7, 14, and 21 days after paw ischemia followed by reperfusion. On day 11 after paw ischemia followed by reperfusion and after 5 days of continuous and interval running, concentrations of cytokines, oxidative stress parameters, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and AKT 1/2/3 expression in the spinal cord were measured. The results showed that continuous running has an antihyperalgesic effect that depends on intensity and volume. Interval running has a longer-lasting antihyperalgesic effect than continuous running. The antihyperalgesic effect depends on intensity and volume in continuous running, and increasing speed maintains the antihyperalgesic effect in both protocols. In the spinal cord, both runs decreased tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 levels and increased interleukin-10. Both running protocols reduced oxidative damage in the spinal cord. Only interval running had lower concentrations of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 in the spinal cord. Interval running presented a great antihyperalgesic potential with more promising results than continuous running, which may be owing to the fact that the interval running can activate different mechanisms from those activated by continuous running.

      Perspective

      A minimum of .5-hour sessions of moderate to high intensity ≥3 times a week are essential parameters for continuous and interval running–induced analgesia. However, interval running was shown to be more effective than continuous running and can be an important adjuvant treatment to chronic pain.

      Key words

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