Advertisement

Incident Chronic Spinal Pain and Depressive Disorders: Data From the National Comorbidity Survey

Published:November 21, 2018DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2018.11.002

      Abstract

      This study examined pre-existing depression as a risk factor for the development of chronic spinal pain, and pre-existing chronic spinal pain as a risk factor for the development of depression. Data from the National Comorbidity Survey, a stratified sample of 5,001 participants evaluated in 1990 to 1992 (NCS-1) and again in 2000 to 2001 (NCS-2) were used to address these associations. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios and time-to-incidence after NCS-1. Participants with antecedent acute or chronic depressive disorders at NCS-1 were more likely to develop chronic spinal pain in the ensuing 10 years compared with participants without depressive disorders. Those with antecedent chronic spinal pain at NCS-1 were more likely to develop dysthymic disorder than subjects without chronic spinal pain at NCS-1; however, antecedent chronic spinal pain was not associated the subsequent development of major depressive disorder. These results suggest that both pain and depression are associated with the development of the other condition. In particular, chronic depression is more strongly linked to chronic spinal pain than is acute depression. The results are discussed in terms of the need to assess the presence of both disorders given the presence of one.

      Perspective

      Chronic spinal pain and depressive disorders, especially chronic depression, increase the likelihood for the subsequent development of the other condition. The results underscore the need to routinely assess for the presence of both disorders given the presence of one to mitigate the effects of developing comorbid conditions.

      Key words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to The Journal of Pain
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • American Psychiatric Association
        Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
        American Psychiatric Association, 3rd ed., revised. Washington, DC1987
        • American Psychiatric Association
        Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
        American Psychiatric Association, 4th ed. Washington, DC1994
        • American Psychiatric Association
        Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
        American Psychiatric Association, 5th ed. Washington, DC2013
        • Atkinson JH
        • Slater MA
        • Patterson TL
        • Grant I
        • Garfin SR
        Prevalence, onset, and risk of psychiatric disorders in men with chronic low back pain: a controlled study.
        Pain. 1991; 45: 111-121
        • Bair MJ
        • Robinson RL
        • Katon W
        • Kroenke K
        Depression and pain comorbidity: a literature review.
        Arch Intern Med. 2003; 163: 2433-2445
        • Baliki MN
        • Apkarian AV
        Nociception, pain, negative moods, and behavior selection.
        Neuron. 2015; 87: 474-491
        • Baune BT
        • Caniato RN
        • Arolt V
        • Berger K
        The effects of dysthymic disorders on health-related quality of life and disability days in persons with comorbid medical conditions in the general population.
        Psychother Psychosom. 2009; 78: 161-166
        • Braden JB
        • Zhang L
        • Fan M
        • Unützer J
        • Edlund MJ
        • Sullivan MD
        Mental health service use by older adults: the role of chronic pain.
        Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2008; 16: 156-167
        • Borsook D
        • Linnman C
        • Faria V
        • Strassman AM
        • Becerra L
        • Elman I
        Reward deficiency and anti-reward in pain chronification.
        Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2016; 68: 282-297
        • Brown GK
        A causal analysis of chronic pain and depression.
        J Abnorm Psychol. 1990; 99: 127-137
        • Campbell P
        • Tang N
        • McBeth J
        • Lewis M
        • Main CJ
        • Croft PR
        • Morphy H
        • Dunn KM
        The role of sleep problems in the development of depression in those with persistent pain: a prospective cohort study.
        Sleep. 2012; 36: 1693-1698
        • Carroll LJ
        • Cassidy JD
        • Côte P
        Depression as a risk factor for onset of an episode of trouble some neck and low back pain.
        Pain. 2004; 107: 134-139
        • Chou R
        • Huffman LH
        Nonpharmacologic therapies for acute and chronic low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society/American College of Physicians clinical practice guideline.
        Ann Intern Med. 2007; 147: 492-504
        • Croft PR
        • Papageorgiou AC
        • Ferry S
        • Thomas E
        • Jayson MIV
        • Silman AJ
        Psychologic distress and low back pain: evidence from a prospective study in the general population.
        Spine. 1996; 20: 2731-2737
        • Currie SR
        • Wang J
        Chronic back pain and major depression in the general Canadian population.
        Pain. 2004; 107: 54-60
        • Currie SR
        • Wang J
        More data on major depression as an antecedent risk factor for first onset of chronic back pain.
        Psychol Med. 2005; 35: 1275-1282
        • de Jong M
        • Lazar SW
        • Hug K
        • Mehling WE
        • Hölzel BK
        • Sack AT
        • Peeters F
        • Ashih H
        • Mischoulon D
        • Gard T
        Effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on body awareness in patients with chronic pain and comorbid depression.
        Front Psychol. 2016; 7: 967
        • Fishbain DA
        • Goldberg M
        • Meagher BR
        • Steele R
        • Rosomoff H
        Male and female chronic pain patients categorized by DSM-III psychiatric diagnostic criteria.
        Pain. 1986; 26: 181-197
        • Freburger JK
        • Holmes GM
        • Agans RP
        • Jackman AM
        • Darter JD
        • Wallace AS
        • Castel LD
        • Kalsbeek WD
        • Carey TS
        The rising prevalence of chronic low back pain.
        Arch Intern Med. 2009; 169: 251-258
        • Gore M
        • Sadosky A.
        • Stacey B.R.
        • Tai K.
        • Leslie D
        The burden of chronic low back pain.
        Spine. 2012; 37: E668-E677
        • Greenberg PE
        • Fournier A
        • Sisitsky T
        • Pike CT
        • Kessler RC
        The economic burden of adults with major depressive disorder in the United States (2005 and 2010).
        J Clin Psychiatry. 2015; 76: 155-162
        • Hilderink PH
        • Burger H
        • Deeg DJ
        • Beekman AT
        • Voshaar RCO
        The temporal relation between pain and depression: results from the longitudinal aging study Amsterdam.
        Psychosom Med. 2012; 74: 945-951
        • Hotopf M
        • Mayou R
        • Wadsworth M
        • Wessely S
        Temporal relationships between physical symptoms and psychiatric disorder: results from a national birth cohort.
        Br J Psychiatry. 1998; 173: 255-261
      1. Jensen MP, Karoly P: Self-report scales and procedures for assessing pain in adults, in Turk DC, Melzack R (eds): Handbook of Pain Assessment, 3rd ed. New York, NY,Guilford, 2011, pp 19-41

        • Johannes CB
        • Le TK
        • Zhou X
        • Johnston JA
        • Dworkin RH
        The prevalence of chronic pain in the United States adults: results of an Internet-based survey.
        J Pain. 2010; 11: 1230-1239
      2. Kessler RC: National Comorbidity Survey: Baseline (NCS-1), 1990-1992. ICPSR06693-v6. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2008-09-12

        • Kessler RC
        National Comorbidity Survey: Reinterview (NCS-2), 2001-2002. ICPSR35067-v2.
        Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], Ann Arbor, MI2015-01-13
        • Kessler RC
        The costs of depression.
        Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2012; 35: 1-14
        • Kessler RC
        • Berglund P
        • Demler O
        • Jin R
        • Merikangas KR
        • Walters EE
        Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication.
        Arch Gen Psych. 2005; 62: 593-602
        • Kessler RC
        • Borges G
        • Sampson N
        • Miller M
        • Nock MK
        The association between smoking and subsequent suicide-related outcomes in the National Comorbidity Survey panel sample.
        Mol Psychiatry. 2009; 14: 1132-1142
        • Kessler RC
        • McGonagle KA
        • Zhao S
        • Nelson CB
        • Hughes M
        • Eshleman S
        • Wittchen H
        • Kendler KS
        Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey.
        Arch Gen Psych. 1994; 51: 8-19
        • Kessler RC
        • Üstün TB
        The World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI).
        Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2004; 13: 93-121
        • Kroenke K
        • Bair MJ
        • Damush TM
        • Wu J
        • Hoke S
        • Sutherland J
        • Tu W
        Optimized antidepressant therapy and pain self-management in primary care patients with depression and musculoskeletal pain: a randomized controlled trial.
        JAMA. 2009; 301: 2099-2110
        • Kuyken W
        • Hayes R
        • Barrett B
        • Byng R
        • Dalgleigh T
        • Kessler D
        • Lewis G
        • Watkins E
        • Brejcha C
        • Cardy J
        • Causley A
        • Corderoy S
        • Evans A
        • Gradinger F
        • Kaur S
        • Lanham P
        • Morant N
        • Richards J
        • Shah P
        • Sutton H
        • Vicary R
        • Weaver A
        • Wilks J
        • Williams M
        • Taylor RS
        • Byford S
        Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy compared with maintenance antidepressant treatment in the prevention of depression relapse or recurrence (PREVENT): a randomized controlled trial.
        Lancet. 2015; 386: 63-73
        • Landmark T
        • Pomundstad P
        • Dale O
        • Borchgrevink PC
        • Kaasa S
        Estimating the prevalence of chronic pain: validation of recall against longitudinal reporting (the HUNT pain study).
        Pain. 2012; 153: 1368-1373
        • Larson SL
        • Clark MR
        • Eaton WW
        Depressive disorder as a long-term antecedent risk factor for incident back pain: a 13-year follow-up study from the Baltimore Epidemiological Catchment Area sample.
        Psychol Med. 2004; 34: 211-219
        • Little RJ
        • Lewitzky S
        • Heeringa S
        • Lepkowski J
        • Kessler RC
        Assessment of weighting methodology for the National Comorbidity Survey.
        Am J Epidemiol. 1997; 146: 439-449
        • Linton SJ
        • Bergbom S
        Understanding the link between depression and pain.
        Scand J Pain. 2011; 2: 47-54
        • Magni G
        • Moreschi C
        • Rigatti-Luchini S
        • Merskey H
        Prospective study on the relationship between depressive symptoms and chronic musculoskeletal pain.
        Pain. 1994; 56: 289-297
        • Mammen J
        • Faukler G
        Physical activity and the prevention of depression: a systematic review of prospective studies.
        Am J Prev Med. 2013; 45: 649-657
        • McWilliams LA
        • Goodwin RD
        • Cox BJ
        Depression and anxiety associated with three pain conditions: results from a nationally representative sample.
        Pain. 2004; 111: 77-83
        • McWilliams LA
        • Cox BJ
        • Enns MW
        Mood and anxiety disorders associated with chronic pain: an examination in a nationally representative sample.
        Pain. 2003; 106: 127-133
        • Polatin PB
        • Kinney RK
        • Gatchel RJ
        • Lillo E
        • Mayer TG
        Psychiatric illness and chronic low-back pain. The mind and the spine—which goes first?.
        Spine. 1993; 18: 66-71
        • Porreca F
        • Navratilova E
        Reward, motivation, and emotion of pain and its relief.
        Pain. 2017; 158: S43-S49
        • Qaseem A
        • Barry MJ
        • Kansagara D
        Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians: Nonpharmacologic versus pharmacologic treatment of adult patients with major depressive disorder: a clinical practice guidelines from the American College of Physicians.
        Ann Intern Med. 2016; 164: 350-359
        • Robins LN
        • Wing J
        • Wittchen HU
        • Helzer JE
        • Babor TF
        • Burke J
        • Farmer A
        • Jablenski Am Pickens R
        • Regier DA
        • Sartorius N
        • Towle LH
        The Composite International Diagnostic Interview: an epidemiologic instrument suitable for use in conjunction with different diagnostic systems and in different cultures.
        Arch Gen Psych. 1988; 45: 1069-1077
        • Romano JM
        • Turner JA
        Chronic pain and depression: does the evidence support a relationship?.
        Psychol Bull. 1985; 97: 18-34
        • Shallcross AJ
        • Gross JJ
        • Visvanathan PD
        • Kumas N
        • Palfrey A
        • Ford BQ
        • Dimidjian S
        • Shirk S
        • Holm-Denoma J
        • Goode KM
        • Cox E
        • Chaplin W
        • Mauss IB
        Relapse prevention in major depressive disorder: mindfulness-based cognitive therapy versus an active control condition.
        J Consult Clin Psychol. 2015; 83: 964-975
        • Shmagel A
        • Foley R
        • Ibrahim H
        Epidemiology of chronic low back pain in US adults: data from the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
        Arthritis Care Res. 2016; 68: 1688-1694
        • Steffens D
        • Maher CG
        • Pereira LS
        • Stevens ML
        • Oliveira VC
        • Chapple M
        • Teixeira-Salmela LF
        • Hancock MJ
        Prevention of low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        JAMA Intern Med. 2016; 176: 199-208
        • US Burden of Disease Collaborators
        The state of US health, 1990-2010: burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors.
        JAMA. 2013; 310: 591-608
        • Von Korff M
        • Crane P
        • Lane M
        • Miglioretti DL
        • Simon G
        • Sanders K
        • Stang P
        • Brandenburg N
        • Kessler R
        Chronic spinal pain and physical-mental comorbidity in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication.
        Pain. 2005; 113: 331-339
        • Von Korff M
        • Le Resche L
        • Dworkin SF
        First onset of common pain symptoms: a prospective study of depression as a risk factor.
        Pain. 1993; 55: 251-258