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AAPT Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic Painful Temporomandibular Disorders

      Highlights

      • Chronic painful temporomandibular disorders with validated diagnoses includes 4 disorders.
      • Chronic temporomandibular disorder pain includes multiple comorbid symptoms, headache and neck pain.
      • Fibromyalgia has substantial somatic and symptom overlap with temporomandibular disorders.
      • Injury risk may increase with chronic pain-related loss of normal jaw movement.
      • Further research should especially focus on protective factors.

      Abstract

      The classification of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) has progressed substantially over the past 25 years owing to the strategic implementation of an initial classification system based on core taxonomic principles. In this article, we describe the development of the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD) and its translation into the multidimensional Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations Innovations Opportunities and Networks–AAPT for chronic pain disorders. The initial scientific classification system (Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders) relied on a boot-strapping process that did not attempt to solve all known clinical problems but, rather, focused on problems that could be solved at that time. The core design principles included using epidemiologic data, operationalized concepts, reliable methods, and the incorporation of the biopsychosocial model into a dual axis system. This system led to sufficient data collection internationally that the system itself could be revised, first by critical evaluation of all aspects, second by review from invited experts, and third by the construction of a revised taxonomy (DC/TMD) that maintained the core design principles of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders. The resultant disorders with pain as a dominant feature exhibit substantial sensitivity and specificity, and they have been translated into the AAPT framework. The AAPT TMD criteria are part of an evidence-based classification system providing a systematic structure that includes 5 dimensions: diagnostic criteria, common features, comorbidities, consequences, and putative mechanisms. Future research will attempt to extend this AAPT domain from solely TMDs to include other orofacial pain conditions.

      Perspective

      The painful TMDs have well-established sensitivity and specificity, as based on the DC/TMD; their translation to the AAPT framework for chronic pain conditions provides a structure for consistent clinical application within the broader health care settings and for future research on the TMDs.

      Key words

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