- •Provoked vestibulodynia is usually defined by pain with touch in the vestibule.
- •Pain from muscular activation also contributes significantly to vestibulodynia.
- •Psychosocial factors differentially affect muscular and mucosal pain.
- •Higher muscular pain is correlated with worse sexual functioning.
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
- Are primary and secondary provoked vestibulodynia two different entities? A comparison of pain, psychosocial, and sexual characteristics.J Sex Med. 2015; 12: 1463-1473
- Painful intercourse is significantly associated with evoked pain perception and cognitive aspects of pain in women with pelvic pain.Sex Med. 2015; 3: 14-23
- Vulvodynia is not created equally: Empirical classification of women with vulvodynia.J Pain Res. 2017; 10: 1601-1609
- Vulvodynia: Characteristics and associations with comorbidities and quality of life.Obstet Gynecol. 2006; 107: 617-624
- An inventory for measuring depression.Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1961; 4: 561-571
- Fear-avoidance and pelvic floor muscle function are associated with pain intensity in women with vulvodynia.Clin J Pain. 2018; 34: 804-810
- Altered gray matter volume in sensorimotor and thalamic regions associated with pain in localized provoked vulvodynia: A voxel-based morphometry study.Pain. 2019; 160: 1529-1540
- Consensus Vulvar Pain Terminology Committee of the International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease (ISSVD) the International Society for the Study of Womenʼs Sexual Health (ISSWSH) and the International Pelvic Pain Society (IPPS).Obstet Gynecol. 2016; 127: 745-751
- MicroRNA expression profiles differentiate chronic pain condition subtypes.Transl Res. 2015; 166: 706-720
- Vulvodynia: A consideration of clinical and methodological research challenges and recommended solutions.J Pain Res. 2017; 10: 2425-2436
- A prospective 2-year examination of cognitive and behavioral correlates of provoked vestibulodynia outcomes.Clin J Pain. 2015; 31: 333-341
- Fear avoidance and self-efficacy in relation to pain and sexual impairment in women with provoked vestibulodynia.Clin J Pain. 2009; 25: 520-527
- Provoked vestibulodynia: Psychological predictors of topical and cognitive-behavioral treatment outcome.Behav Res Ther. 2010; 48: 106-115
- Subsets of vulvodynia: Overlapping characteristics.J Reprod Med. 2004; 49: 883-887
- A review of the available clinical therapies for vulvodynia management and new data implicating pro-inflammatory mediators in pain elicitation.BJOG. 2017; 124: 210-218
- Catastrophizing in vulvovaginal pain: Impact on pain and partner responses over time.J Appl Behav Res. 2017; 22: e12093
- Pelvic floor muscle morphometry and function in women with primary and secondary provoked vestibulodynia.J Sex Med. 2018; 15: 1149-1157
- Effects of intradermal foot and forearm capsaicin injections in normal and vulvodynia-afflicted women.Pain. 2005; 117: 128-136
- The tampon test for vulvodynia treatment outcomes research: Reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness.Obstet Gynecol. 2009; 113: 825-832
- Pelvic vestibulodynia and the impact of a physical therapy program.J Sex Med. 2010; 7: 1003-1022
- Electromyographic comparisons of the pelvic floor in women with dysethetic vulvodynia and asymptomatic women.J Reprod Med. 1998; 43: 959-962
- Histologic and receptor analysis of primary and secondary vestibulodynia and controls: A prospective study.Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010; 202 (614.e1-8)
- Polymorphisms of the androgen receptor gene and hormonal contraceptive induced provoked vestibulodynia.J Sex Med. 2014; 11: 2764-2771
- Vulvodynia: Assessment and treatment.J Sex Med. 2016; 13: 572-590
- Evaluation of multi-dimensional pain scales.Pain. 1992; 48: 297-300
- Test-retest reliability of the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire: Assessment of intraclass correlation coefficients and limits of agreement in patients with osteoarthritis.Clin J Pain. 2005; 21: 73-82
- Disease-related differences in resting-state networks: A comparison between localized provoked vulvodynia, irritable bowel syndrome, and healthy control subjects.Pain. 2015; 156: 809-819
- Provoked vestibulodynia: Current perspectives.Int J Womens Health. 2017; 9: 631-642
- The evidence-based vulvodynia assessment project. A national registry for the study of vulvodynia.J Reprod Med. 2015; 60: 223-235
- Morphometry of the pelvic floor muscles in women with and without provoked vestibulodynia using 4D ultrasound.J Sex Med. 2014; 11: 776-785
- Randomized clinical trial of multimodal physiotherapy treatment compared to overnight lidocaine ointment in women with provoked vestibulodynia: Design and methods.Contemp Clin Trials. 2016; 46: 52-59
- Pain trajectories and predictors: A 7-year longitudinal study of women with vulvodynia.J Sex Med. 2019; 16: 1606-1614
- Prevalence and demographic characteristics of vulvodynia in a population-based sample.AJOG. 2012; 206 (170.e1-9)
- Relationship between vulvodynia and chronic comorbid pain conditions.Obstet Gynecol. 2012; 120: 145-151
- Presence of spontaneous pain and comorbid pain conditions identifies vulvodynia subgroups.J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2016; 20: 57-63
- Remission, relapse, and persistence of vulvodynia: A longitudinal population-based study.J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2016; 25: 276-283
- Pelvic floor muscle functioning in women with vulvar vestibulitis syndrome.J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2005; 26: 107-113
- The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI): A multidimensional self-report instrument for the assessment of female sexual function.J Sex Marital Ther. 2000; 26: 191-208
- Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, CA1970
- Mucosal versus muscle pain sensitivity in provoked vestibulodynia.J Pain Res. 2015; 8: 549-555
- Reliability and reproducibility of novel methodology for assessment of pressure pain sensitivity in pelvis.J Pain. 2012; 13: 910-920
Conflict of interest: The National Vulvodynia Association, the Patty Brisben Foundation for Women's Sexual Health and AdventHealth Orlando funded this study. The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose. Dr. Lamvu has additional research grant funding from Pfizer and serves as a research consultant for AbbVie Inc. and Uroshape LLC. Dr. Rapkin serves on a Data Safety and Monitoring Board for Bayer Pharmaceuticals and as a speaker for AbbVie Inc. However, this work is unrelated to the research topic presented in this manuscript.