Advertisement

The Moderating Role of Attention Control in the Relationship Between Pain Catastrophizing and Negatively-Biased Pain Memories in Youth With Chronic Pain

      Highlights

      • Attention control moderates the effect of pain catastrophizing on pain memory bias.
      • Attention control is not a unitary construct.
      • A minority of youth with chronic pain develops negatively biased pain memories.
      • Attention shifting buffers the effect of pain catastrophizing on memory bias.

      Abstract

      The present study examined the role of attention control in understanding the development of negatively-biased pain memories as well as its moderating role in the relationship between pain catastrophizing and negatively-biased pain memories. Youth with chronic pain (N = 105) performed a cold pressor task (CPT) and completed self-report measures of state/trait pain catastrophizing and attention control, with the latter comprising both attention focusing and attention shifting. Two weeks after the CPT, youth's pain-related memories were elicited via telephone allowing to compute pain and anxiety memory bias indices (ie, recalling pain intensity or pain-related anxiety, respectively, as higher than initially reported). Results indicated no main effects of attention control and pain catastrophizing on pain memories. However, both components of attention control (ie, attention focusing and attention shifting) moderated the impact of pain catastrophizing on youth's memory bias, with opposite interaction effects. Specifically, whereas high levels of attention shifting buffered the influence of high pain catastrophizing on the development of pain memory bias, high levels of attention focusing strengthened the influence of high pain catastrophizing on the development of anxiety memory bias. Interaction effects were confined to trait catastrophizing (ie, not state catastrophizing). Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

      Perspective

      This article investigates the role of attention control in the development of negatively-biased pain memories in children with chronic pain. Findings underscore the importance of targeting differential components of attention control and can inform intervention efforts to minimize the development of negatively biased pain memories in youth with chronic pain.

      Key words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to The Journal of Pain
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Abasi I
        • Mohammadkhani P
        • Pourshahbaz A
        • Dolatshahi B
        The psychometric properties of attentional control scale and its relationship with symptoms of anxiety and depression: A study on Iranian population.
        Iran J Psychiatry. 2017; 12: 109-117
        • Baron RM
        • Kenny DA
        The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations.
        J Pers Soc Psychol. 1986; 51: 1173-1182https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.51.6.1173
        • Beveridge JK
        • Dobson KS
        • Madigan S
        • Yeates KO
        • Stone AL
        • Wilson AC
        • Salberg S
        • Mychasiuk R
        • Noel M
        Adverse childhood experiences in parents of youth with chronic pain: Prevalence and comparison to a community-based sample.
        Pain Rep. 2020; 5: e866https://doi.org/10.1097/PR9.0000000000000866
        • Birnie KA
        • Chambers CT
        • Chorney J
        • Fernandez CV
        • McGrath PJ
        Dyadic analysis of child and parent trait and state pain catastrophizing in the process of children's pain communication.
        Pain. 2016; 157: 938-948https://doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000461
        • Birnie KA
        • Petter M
        • Boerner KE
        • Noel M
        • Chambers CT
        Contemporary use of the cold pressor task in pediatric pain research: A systematic review of methods.
        J Pain. 2012; 3 (doi.org/0.1016/j.jpain.2012.06.005): 817-826
        • Boerner KE
        • Noel M
        • Birnie KA
        • Caes L
        • Petter M
        • Chambers CT
        Impact of threat level, task instruction, and individual characteristics on cold pressor pain and fear among children and their parents.
        Pain Pract. 2015; 16: 657-668https://doi.org/10.1111/papr.12306
        • Campbell CM
        • Kronfli T
        • Buenaver LF
        • Smith MT
        • Berna C
        • Haythornthwaite JA
        • Edwards RR
        Situational vs dispositional measurement of catastrophizing: Associations with pain responses in multiple samples.
        J Pain. 2010; 11: 443-453https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2009.08.009
        • Chen E
        • Zeltzer LK
        • Craske MG
        • Katz ER
        Children's memories for painful cancer treatment procedures: Implications for distress.
        Child Dev. 2000; 71: 933-947https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00200
        • Crombez G
        • Bijttebier P
        • Eccleston C
        • Mascagni T
        • Mertens G
        • Goubert L
        • Verstraeten K
        The child version of the pain catastrophizing scale (PCS-C): A preliminary validation.
        Pain. 2003; 104: 639-646https://doi.org/10.1016/s0304-3959(03)00121-0
        • De Lissnyder E
        • Koster EHW
        • De Raedt R
        Emotional interference in working memory is related to rumination.
        Cognit Ther Res. 2012; 36: 348-357https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-011-9352-4
        • Derryberry D
        • Reed MA
        Anxiety-related attentional biases and their regulation by attentional control.
        J Abnorm Psychol. 2002; 111: 225-236https://doi.org/10.1037//0021-843X.111.2.225
        • Dixon KE
        • Thorn BE
        • Ward LC
        An evaluation of sex differences in psychological and physiological responses to experimentally-induced pain: A path analytic description.
        Pain. 2004; 112: 188-196https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2004.08.017
        • Durand H
        • Birnie KA
        • Noel M
        • Vervoort T
        • Goubert L
        • Boerner KE
        • Chambers CT
        • Caes L
        State versus trait: Validating state assessment of child and parental catastrophic thinking about child pain.
        J Pain. 2017; 18: 385-395https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2016.11.012
        • Edwards RR
        • Campbell CM
        • Fillingim RB
        Catastrophizing and experimental pain sensitivity: Only in vivo reports of catastrophic cognitions correlate with pain responses.
        J Pain. 2005; 6: 338-339https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2005.02.013
        • Eich E
        • Reeves JL
        • Jaeger B
        • Graff-Radford SB
        Memory for pain: Relation between past and present pain intensity.
        Pain. 1985; 23: 375-380https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3959(85)90007-7
        • Ellis AJ
        • Wells TT
        • Vanderlind WM
        • Beevers CG
        The role of controlled attention on recall in major depression.
        Cogn Emot. 2014; 28: 520-529https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2013.832153
        • Elommaa MM
        • Williams ACDC
        • Kalso EA
        Attention management as a treatment for chronic pain.
        Eur J Pain. 2009; 13: 1062-1067https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpain.2008.12.002
        • Fajkowska M
        • Derryberry D
        Psychometric properties of attentional control scale: The preliminary study on a Polish sample.
        Pol Psychol Bull. 2010; 41: 1-7https://doi.org/10.2478/s10059-010-0001-7
        • Flor H
        New developments in the understanding and management of persistent pain.
        Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2012; 25: 109-113https://doi.org/10.1097/YCO.0b013e3283503510
        • Goubert L
        • Crombez G
        • Eccleston C
        • Devulder J
        Distraction from chronic pain during a pain-inducing activity is associated with greater post-activity pain.
        Pain. 2004; 110: 220-227https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2004.03.034
        • Harris PA
        • Taylor R
        • Thielke R
        • Payne J
        • Gonzalez N
        • Conde JG
        Research electronic data capture (REDCap): A metadata-driven methodology and workflow process for providing translational research informatics support.
        J Biomed Inform. 2009; 42: 377-381https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbi.2008.08.010
        • Heathcote LC
        • Lau JYF
        • Mueller SC
        • Eccleston C
        • Fox E
        • Bosmans M
        • Vervoort T
        Child attention to pain and pain tolerance are dependent upon anxiety and attention control: An eye-tracking study.
        Eur J Pain. 2017; 21: 250-263https://doi.org/10.1002/ejp.920
        • Heathcote LC
        • Vervoort T
        • Eccleston C
        • Fox E
        • Jacobs K
        • Van Ryckeghem DML
        • Lau JYF
        The relationship between adolescent's pain catastrophizing and attention bias to pain faces is moderated by attention control.
        Pain. 2015; 156: 1334-1341https://doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000174
        • Holmbeck GN
        Toward terminological, conceptual and statistical clarity in the study of mediators and moderators: Examples from the child-clinical and pediatric psychology literatures.
        J Consult Clin Psychol. 1997; 65: 599-610https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-006x.65.4.599
        • Hutton SB
        • Ettinger U
        The antisaccade task as a research tool in psychopathology: A critical review.
        Psychophysiology. 2006; 43: 302-313https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.2006.00403.x
        • Jaaniste T
        • Noel M
        • Yee RD
        • Bang J
        • Tan AC
        • Champion GD
        Why unidimensional pain measurement prevails in the pediatric acute pain context and what multidimensional self-report methods can offer.
        Children. 2019; 6: 132https://doi.org/10.3390/children6120132
        • Johnson DR
        Attentional control capacity for emotion: An individual difference measure of internal controlled attention.
        Cogn Emot. 2009; 23: 1516-1536https://doi.org/10.1080/02699930802437095
        • Johnson DR
        Emotional attention set-shifting and its relationship to anxiety and emotion regulation.
        Emotion. 2009; 9: 681-690https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017095
        • Judah MR
        • Grant DM
        • Mills AC
        • Lechner WV
        Factor structure and validation of the attentional control scale.
        Cogn Emot. 2014; 28: 433-451https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2013.835254
        • Lander J
        • Hodgins M
        • Fowler-Kerry S
        Children's pain predictions and memories.
        Behav Res Ther. 1992; 30: 117-124https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967(92)90134-3
        • Lau JYF
        • Heathcote LC
        • Beale S
        • Gray S
        • Jacobs K
        • Wilkinson N
        • Crombez G
        Cognitive biases in children and adolescents with chronic pain: A review of findings and a call for developmental research.
        J Pain. 2018; 19: 589-598https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2018.01.005
        • Liossi C
        • Fitzgerald M
        Remember, remember a child's experience.
        Pain. 2012; 153: 1543-1544https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2012.05.003
      1. Merskey H, Bogduk N, Classification of chronic pain, IASP Task Force on Taxonomy. Seattle, WA: International Association for the Study of Pain Press (Also available online at www.iasp-pain.org).

        • Myers R
        Classical and Modern Regression With Applications.
        Duxbury, Boston1990
        • Neville A
        • Griep Y
        • Palermo TM
        • Vervoort T
        • Schulte F
        • Yeates KO
        • Sumpton JE
        • Mychasiuk R
        • Noel M
        A 'dyadic dance': Pain catastrophizing moderates the daily relationships between parent mood and protective responses and child chronic pain.
        Pain. 2020; 161: 1072-1082https://doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001799
        • Neville A
        • Jordan A
        • Beveridge JK
        • Pincus T
        • Noel M
        Diagnostic uncertainty in youth with chronic pain and their parents.
        J Pain. 2019; 20: 1080-1090https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2019.03.004
        • Neville A
        • Jordan A
        • Pincus T
        • Nania C
        • Schulte F
        • Yeates KO
        • Noel M
        Diagnostic uncertainty in pediatric chronic pain: Nature, prevalence, and consequences.
        Pain Rep. 2020; 5: e871https://doi.org/10.1097/PR9.0000000000000871
        • Neville A
        • Kopala-Sibley D
        • Soltani S
        • Asmundson GJG
        • Jordan A
        • Carleton RN
        • Yeates KO
        • Schulte F
        • Noel M
        A longitudinal examination of the interpersonal fear avoidance model of pain: The role of intolerance of uncertainty.
        Pain. 2021; 162: 152-160https://doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000002009
        • Nicholas M
        • Vlaeyen JWS
        • Rief W
        • Barke A
        • Aziz Q
        • Benoliel R
        • Cohen M
        • Evers S
        • Giamberardino MA
        • Goebel A
        • Korwisi B
        • Perrot S
        • Svensson P
        • Wang SJ
        • Treede RD
        • IASP Taskforce for the Classification of Chronic Pain
        The IASP classification of chronic pain for ICD-11: Chronic primary pain.
        Pain. 2019; 160: 28-37https://doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001390
        • Noel M
        • Chambers CT
        • McGrath PJ
        • Klein RM
        • Stewart SH
        The influence of children's pain memories on subsequent pain experience.
        Pain. 2012; 153: 1563-1572https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2012.02.020
        • Noel M
        • Chambers CT
        • McGrath PJ
        • Klein RM
        • Stewart SH
        The role of state anxiety in children's memories for pain.
        J Pediatr Psychol. 2012; 37: 567-579https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jss006
        • Noel M
        • Chambers CT
        • Petter M
        • McGrath PJ
        • Klein RM
        • Stewart SH
        Pain is not over when the needle ends: A review and preliminary model of acute pain memory development in childhood.
        Pain Manag. 2012; 2: 487-497https://doi.org/10.2217/pmt.12.41
        • Noel M
        • Pavlova M
        • Lund T
        • Jordan A
        • Chorney J
        • Rasic N
        • Brookes J
        • Hoy M
        • Yunker WK
        • Graham S
        The role of narrative in the development of children's pain memories: Influences -of father-and mother-child reminiscing on children's recall of pain.
        Pain. 2019; 160: 1866-1875https://doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001565
        • Noel M
        • Pavlova M
        • McCallum L
        • Vinall J
        Remembering the hurt of childhood: A psychological review and call for future research.
        Can Psychol. 2017; 58: 58-68https://doi.org/10.1037/cap0000098
        • Noel M
        • Rabbits JA
        • Fales J
        • Chorney J
        • Palermo TM
        The influence of pain memories on children's and adolescents’ post-surgical pain experience: A longitudinal dyadic analysis.
        Health Psychol. 2017; 36: 987-995https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000530
        • Noel M
        • Rabbits JA
        • Tai GG
        • Palermo TM
        Remembering pain after surgery: A longitudinal examination of the role of pain catastrophizing in children's and parents’ recall.
        Pain. 2015; 156: 800-808https://doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000102
        • Noel M
        • Rosenbloom B
        • Pavlova M
        • Campbell F
        • Isaac L
        • Page MG
        • Stinson J
        • Katz J
        Remembering the pain of surgery 1 year later: A longitudinal examination of anxiety in children's pain memory development.
        Pain. 2019; 160: 1729-1739https://doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001582
        • Olafsson RP
        • Smari J
        • Guomundsdottir F
        • Olafsdottir G
        • Hardardottir HL
        • Einarsson SM
        Self-reported attention control with the attentional control scale: Factor structure and relationship with symptoms of anxiety and depression.
        J Anxiety Disord. 2011; 25: 777-782https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2011.03.013
        • Ornstein PA
        • Manning EL
        • Pelphrey KA
        Children's memory for pain.
        J Dev Behav Pediatr. 1999; 20: 262-277https://doi.org/10.1097/00004703-199908000-00009
        • Pate JT
        • Blount RL
        • Cohen LL
        • Smith AJ
        Childhood medical experience and temperament as predictors of adult functioning in medical situations.
        Child Health Care. 1996; 25: 281-298https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326888chc2504_4
        • Pavlova M
        • Kopala-Sibley DC
        • Nania C
        • Mychasiuk R
        • Christensen J
        • McPeak A
        • Tomfohr-Madsen L
        • Katz J
        • Palermo TM
        • Noel M
        Sleep disturbance underlies the co-occurrence of trauma and pediatric chronic pain: A longitudinal examination.
        Pain. 2020; 161: 821-830https://doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001769
        • Quigley L
        • Wright CA
        • Dobson KS
        • Sears CR
        Measuring attention control ability or beliefs? Evaluation of the factor structure and convergent validity of the attentional control scale.
        J Psychopathol Behav Assess. 2017; 39: 742-754https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-017-9617-7
        • Ranjbar S
        • Mazidi M
        • Sharpe L
        • Dehghani M
        • Khatibi A
        Attentional control moderates the relationship between pain catastrophizing and selective attention to pain faces on the antisaccade task.
        Sci Rep. 2020; 10: 1-11https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69910-2
        • Reinholdt-Dunne ML
        • Mogg K
        • Bradley B
        Attention control: Relationships between self-report and behavioural measures, and symptoms of anxiety and depression.
        Cogn Emot. 2013; 27: 430-440https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2012.715081
        • Ruskin D
        • Lalloo C
        • Amaria K
        • Stinson JN
        • Kewley E
        • Campbell F
        • Brown SC
        • Jeavons M
        • McGrath PA
        Assessing pain intensity in children with chronic pain: Convergent and discriminant validity of the 0 to 10 numerical rating scale in clinical practice.
        Pain Res Manag. 2014; 19: 461-470https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/856513
        • Soltani S
        • Van Ryckeghem DML
        • Vervoort T
        • Heathcote LC
        • Yeates K
        • Sears C
        • Noel M
        Attentional biases in pediatric chronic pain: An eye-tracking study assessing the nature of bias and its relation to attentional control.
        Pain. 2020; 161: 2263-2273https://doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001916
        • Stinson JN
        • Kavanagh T
        • Yamada J
        • Gill N
        • Stevens B
        Systematic review of the psychometric properties, interpretability and feasibility of self-report pain intensity measures for use in clinical trials in children and adolescents.
        Pain. 2006; 125: 143-157https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2006.05.006
        • Sturgeon JA
        • Zautra AJ
        State and trait pain catastrophizing and emotional health in rheumatoid arthritis.
        Ann Behav Med. 2013; 45: 69-77https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-012-9408-z
        • Sullivan MJL
        • Bishop SR
        • Pivik J
        The pain catastrophizing scale: Development and validation.
        Psychol Assess. 1995; 7: 524-532https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.7.4.524
        • Sun-Ok S
        • Carr D
        Pain and memory. International association for the study of pain.
        Pain: Clinical Updates. 1999; 7: 1-4
        • Van Ryckeghem D
        • Noel M
        • Sharpe L
        • Pincus T
        • Van Damme S
        Cognitive biases in pain: An integrated functional-contextual framework.
        Pain. 2019; 160: 1489-1493https://doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001508
        • Van Ryckeghem D
        • Vervoort T
        Towards an integrative view of cognitive biases in pain.
        Eur J Pain. 2016; 20: 1201-1202https://doi.org/10.1002/ejp.913
        • Verhoeven K
        • Crombez G
        • Eccleston C
        • Van Ryckeghem DML
        • Morley S
        • Van Damme S
        The role of motivation in distracting attention away from pain: An experimental study.
        Pain. 2010; 149: 229-234https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2010.01.019
        • Vervoort T
        • Caes L
        • Trost Z
        • Sullivan M
        • Vangronsveld K
        • Goubert L
        Social modulation of facial pain display in high-catastrophizing children: An observational study in schoolchildren and their parents.
        Pain. 2011; 152: 1591-1599https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2011.02.048
        • Vervoort T
        • Goubert L
        • Eccleston C
        • Vandenhende M
        • Claeys O
        • Clarke J
        • Crombez G
        Expressive dimensions of pain catastrophizing: An observational study in adolescents with chronic pain.
        Pain. 2009; 146: 170-176https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2009.07.021
        • Vervoort T
        • Goubert L
        • Crombez G
        The relationship between high catastrophizing children's facial display of pain and parental judgement of their child's pain.
        Pain. 2009; 142: 142-148https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2008.12.028
        • Vervoort T
        • Goubert L
        • Eccleston C
        • Bijttebier P
        • Crombez G
        Catastrophic thinking about pain is independently associated with pain severity, disability, and somatic complaints in school children and children with chronic pain.
        J Pediatr Psychol. 2006; 31: 674-683https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsj059
        • Vervoort T
        • Goubert L
        • Vandenbossche H
        • Van Aken S
        • Matthys D
        • Crombez G
        Child's and parents' catastrophizing about pain is associated with procedural fear in children: A study in children with diabetes and their mothers.
        Psychol Rep. 2011; 109: 879-895https://doi.org/10.2466/07.15.16.21.PR0.109.6.879-895
        • Vervoort T
        • Karos K
        • Johnson D
        • Sütterlin S
        • Van Ryckeghem D
        Parental emotion and pain control behaviour when faced with child's pain: The emotion regulatory role of parental pain-related attention-set shifting and heart rate variability.
        Pain. 2019; 160: 322-333https://doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001402
        • Vervoort T
        • Trost Z
        • Sütterlin S
        • Caes L
        • Moors A
        Emotion regulatory function of parent attention to child pain and associated implications for parental pain control behavior.
        Pain. 2014; 155: 1453-1463https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2014.04.015
        • von Baeyer CL
        • Marche TA
        • Rocha EM
        • Salmon K
        Children's memory for pain: Overview and implications for practice.
        J Pain. 2004; 5: 241-249https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2004.05.001
        • von Baeyer CL
        • Piira T
        • Chambers CT
        • Trapanotto M
        • Zeltzer LK
        Guidelines for the cold pressor task as an experimental pain stimulus for use with children.
        J Pain. 2005; 6: 218-227https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2005.01.349
        • von Baeyer CL
        • Spagrud LJ
        • McCormick JC
        • Choo E
        • Neville K
        • Connelly MA
        Three new datasets supporting use of the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS-11) for children's self-reports of pain intensity.
        Pain. 2009; 143: 223-227https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2009.03.002
        • Wauters A
        • Noel M
        • Van Ryckeghem DML
        • Sanchez-Lopez A
        • Vervoort T
        Parental (non-)pain attending verbalizations moderate the relationship between child attention and memory bias for pain.
        Eur J Pain. 2020; 24: 1797-1811https://doi.org/10.1002/ejp.1627