- •This meta-analysis is based on 58 RCTs with 10084 patients with chronic non-specific low back pain.
- •Individualising exercise has an overall small but relevant effect on pain intensity and disability.
- •Individualised exercise has small to medium effects compared to other active or passive controls.
- •Combining exercise with cognitive-behavioural interventions promotes largest clinical differences.
- •Motor-control trainings seem to be most promising exercises on an individualised level.
- •Most findings are based on low to moderate certainty of evidence.
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Funding: This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Disclosures: JF received honorary for scientific counselling from the German Medical Acupuncture Association. All other authors declare no conflict of interest.