- •Not accounting for analgesic use may decrease power and accuracy in pain trials.
- •This study examined several methods to account for analgesic use.
- •Most currently used methods resulted in decreased power and accuracy.
- •A novel outcome that accounts for analgesic use optimized power and minimized bias.
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Dr. Suri is a Staff Physician at the VA Puget Sound Health Care System in Seattle, Washington. Dr. Korpak, Mr. Timmons, and Mr. Baraff are Research Scientists at the VA Puget Sound Health Care System in Seattle, Washington. This work was supported by resources from the VA Puget Sound Health Care System and from the UW Clinical Learning, Evidence and Research (CLEAR) Center for Musculoskeletal Disorders funded by NIH/NIAMS P30AR072572 . This work used resources and services provided by the CLEAR Center Methodologic Core and the Resource Core. The contents of this work do not represent the views of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, the National Institutes of Health, or the United States Government. Dr. Jarvik reported receiving royalties from Springer Publishing and Wolters/ Kluwer/UpToDate and receiving travel reimbursement from GE–Association of University Radiologists outside the submitted work. Dr. Friedly reported receiving grants from the Department of Defense and salary support from the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation for serving as editor in chief outside the submitted work. None of the other authors has potential conflicts of interest to report.