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Development and validation of the Scale for Pain Self-Efficacy (SPaSE) in German and English languages for children and adolescents

  • Lorin Stahlschmidt
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author: Dr. Lorin Stahlschmidt, German Paediatric Pain Centre, Children's and Adolescents’ Hospital Datteln, Department of Children's Pain Therapy and Paediatric Palliative Care, Witten/Herdecke University, Dr.-Friedrich-Steiner-Str. 5, 45711 Datteln, Germany
    Affiliations
    German Paediatric Pain Centre, Children's and Adolescents’ Hospital Datteln, Datteln, Germany

    Department of Children's Pain Therapy and Paediatric Palliative Care, Witten/Herdecke University, Faculty of Health, School of Medicine, Witten, Germany
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  • Meltem Dogan
    Affiliations
    German Paediatric Pain Centre, Children's and Adolescents’ Hospital Datteln, Datteln, Germany

    Department of Children's Pain Therapy and Paediatric Palliative Care, Witten/Herdecke University, Faculty of Health, School of Medicine, Witten, Germany
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  • Bettina Hübner-Möhler
    Affiliations
    German Paediatric Pain Centre, Children's and Adolescents’ Hospital Datteln, Datteln, Germany

    Department of Children's Pain Therapy and Paediatric Palliative Care, Witten/Herdecke University, Faculty of Health, School of Medicine, Witten, Germany
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  • Kelsey Jervis
    Affiliations
    Pediatric Pain Rehabilitation Program, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
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  • Edin T. Randall
    Affiliations
    Pediatric Pain Rehabilitation Program, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA

    Department of Psychiatry, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
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  • Dustin P. Wallace
    Affiliations
    Children's Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, MO, USA

    University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO, USA.
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  • Boris Zernikow
    Affiliations
    German Paediatric Pain Centre, Children's and Adolescents’ Hospital Datteln, Datteln, Germany

    Department of Children's Pain Therapy and Paediatric Palliative Care, Witten/Herdecke University, Faculty of Health, School of Medicine, Witten, Germany
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  • Julia Wager
    Affiliations
    German Paediatric Pain Centre, Children's and Adolescents’ Hospital Datteln, Datteln, Germany

    Department of Children's Pain Therapy and Paediatric Palliative Care, Witten/Herdecke University, Faculty of Health, School of Medicine, Witten, Germany
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Published:January 12, 2023DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2023.01.007

      Highlights

      • this article presents the SPaSE - a new measure of pain self-efficacy for children and adolescents
      • the SPaSE was carefully developed, validated and cross-validated
      • the SPaSE is available in both German and English language
      • the SPaSE can be used in research and clinical practice to measure treatment progress and outcome

      Abstract

      No validated measure for pain self-efficacy in children and adolescents is currently available in the German language, and existing English versions have limitations. This study used a thorough development process to create the Scale for Pain Self-Efficacy (SPaSE) in both German and English languages. Scale development was based on self-efficacy theory, adapting items from existing self-efficacy measures, and review of patients’ perspectives. The final version of the 11-item SPaSE was created with expert discussions and testing of content validity, comprehensibility and construct validity. The validation process consisted of exploratory factor analysis, testing of item characteristics, internal consistency and sensitivity to change in two German samples of children and adolescents with chronic pain (study 1: outpatient sample N=150, inpatient sample N=31). Cross-validation in a US sample (study 2: N=98) confirmed the one-factor structure, the sound psychometric properties and reliability of the SPaSE. Sum scores of the SPaSE were negatively correlated with pain-related disability, pain intensity, passive pain coping strategies and emotional distress, in line with previous research. The valid and reliable SPaSE can be used in clinical practice to monitor pain treatment progress, advances the field of pain self-efficacy research in Germany, and opens the door to comparative research in German and English samples.

      Keywords

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