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• Your Paper Your Way
• General Information
• Authorship Requirements
• Special Features
• Submission of Material
• Submission checklist
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
• Ethics in publishing
• Human and Animal Rights
• Submission declaration and verification
• Use of inclusive language
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Language services
• Research Data
• Submission
• Editor contact information
PREPARATION
• NEW SUBMISSIONS
• Peer review
• REVISED SUBMISSIONS
• Article structure
• Essential title page information
• Highlights
• Acknowledgments
• Artwork
• Figure Legends
• Tables
• References
• Video
• Data visualization
• Supplementary material
• Research data
• Permissions
• Cover Images
• Proprietary Information
AFTER ACCEPTANCE
• Proofs
AUTHOR INQUIRIES

Your Paper Your Way

We now differentiate between the requirements for new and revised submissions. You may choose to submit your manuscript as a single Word or PDF file to be used in the refereeing process. Only when your paper is at the revision stage, will you be requested to put your paper in to a 'correct format' for acceptance and provide the items required for the publication of your article.
To find out more, please visit the Preparation section below.

General Information

The Journal of Pain publishes articles related to all aspects of pain and pain management, including basic, translational, and clinical research, epidemiology, education, and health policy. The Journal of Pain is interdisciplinary in focus and committed to advancing knowledge about pain mechanisms and pain management. The Journal will publish reports of original research, focus articles, reviews, and letters to the editor.

The Journal does not publish case reports, studies that include open-label medication trials, uncontrolled studies, reports on the translation of established measures, or meeting announcements. However, rigorous single case experimental design studies and pilot feasibility studies will be considered.

Authorship Requirements

  • The Journal follows ICJME recommendations on authorship, see https://www.icmje.org/.
  • The corresponding author is responsible for communicating with The Journal of Pain and for determining the list of authors. Manuscripts may have only ONE corresponding author. This individual assumes responsibility for listing contributions made by individuals who do not qualify for authorship (in the Acknowledgments section), if necessary. Guest or titular authorship based on assignment—such as department chair—is prohibited.


  • Special Features

    Reviews

    Systematic reviews comprehensively identify all relevant studies on a topic to answer a research question, and most typically will include meta-analysis to combine data from multiple studies. Systematic review articles require prospective registration with PROSPERO (https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/) in order to be considered for publication. Registration information should be provided upon submission and placed at the end of the Abstract.

    Other reviews (e.g., scoping review, mapping reviews) might be considered for publication, if they provide an important new way of understanding a complex body of research literature that does not or cannot lend itself to a systematic review. Although pre-registration of protocols for these reviews is not required for consideration for publication in The Journal of Pain, authors are encouraged to pre-register their protocols at Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/).

    Letters to the Editor

    Letters to the Editor commenting on articles published in the last 12 months are encouraged. Letters should be limited to 500 words or less, though lengthier pieces may be approved by the Editor. The letter will be shared with the author(s) of the original article, who will have the chance to respond. All letters are subject to editorial review.

    Meeting Announcements/Press Releases

    Meeting announcements and press releases are not published in The Journal of Pain.

    Submission of Material

    Authors must submit manuscripts electronically, uploading documents to the submission website, https://www.editorialmanager.com/JPAIN/default.aspx. The system will convert documents to PDF files. Authors are encouraged to submit manuscripts in Microsoft Word. TIFF and EPS are the preferred formats for artwork. (See Preparation guidelines below for details regarding the correct order to upload files.)

    Submission checklist

    You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.

    Ensure that the following items are present:

    One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
    • E-mail address
    • Full postal address

    All necessary files have been uploaded:
    Manuscript:
    • Include keywords
    • All figures (include relevant captions)
    • All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
    • Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
    • Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
    Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
    Supplemental files (where applicable)

    Further considerations
    • Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
    • All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
    • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
    • A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare
    • Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
    • Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements

    For further information, visit our Support Center.




    Ethics in publishing

    Please see our information on Ethics in publishing.

    Human and Animal Rights

    Human Subjects

    Articles involving research conducted in human subjects must include statements in Materials and Methods indicating that 1) approval by the Institutional Review Board was granted; and 2) informed consent was obtained from participants. Participants should be identified only by number, not name or initials. Authors must follow policies on obtaining permission and releases when including case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals.

    Animal Subjects

    Articles involving research conducted in nonhuman subjects must include 1) a statement in Materials and Methods indicating approval by the Institutional Review Board and that the care and use of animals conformed to applicable national/international guidelines; 2) information about the source (vendor and location) of animals; 3) description of the sex of the animals. If anesthesia was used, the anesthetic, dose, and duration of surgery must be provided, as well as information about any intra- and/or postoperative drugs (ie, drug, dose, and interdosing interval, if given more than once).

    Conflict of interest

    All authors must state explicitly whether or not any conflicts exist. Authors must indicate any actual or potential conflicts of interest including any financial, personal, or other relationships with other people or organizations within 3 years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. This information should be presented in the Disclosures section. See also https://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at https://service.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/286/supporthub/publishing.

    Disclosures

    This required section must appear on the title page. Research funding sources must be acknowledged, including corporate, grant, institutional, or departmental funds. If this does not apply, authors must state that no funding sources were provided. In this section, all authors must also disclose any potential conflicts of interest and must include a declaration statement if no conflicts exist. Conflicts include honoraria, travel to conferences, consultancies, stock ownership (excluding publicly owned mutual funds), equity interests, and patent-licensing arrangements (particularly if a commercial product is noted in the article).

    Checklists and Reporting Guidelines

    The Journal of Pain requires the use of an appropriate reporting guideline when writing any manuscript. You must submit a completed checklist for the relevant guideline (and flow diagram if applicable) alongside your manuscript, indicating the manuscript page on which each checklist item is found. Checklists are not simply an administrative hurdle. We ask you to complete a checklist because this helps you to ensure transparent reporting in your paper, an essential element for editors and reviewers to evaluate quality and rigor of the study.
    Some common study types and the appropriate guidelines are listed below. We strongly encourage authors to visit the Equator Network for a comprehensive overview of reporting guidelines, https://www.equator-network.org/. Editable checklists are available at Equator Network, which also gives general information on how to choose the correct guideline.
    If you are reporting a systematic review or meta-analysis of the existing literature Use the PRISMA guideline for systematic reviews or meta-analyses, and the PRISMA-ScR for scoping reviews.
    If you are reporting on animal research Use the ARRIVE guideline for research on animals in a lab
    If you are reporting research into diagnosis Use the STARD guideline if you compared the accuracy of a diagnostic test with an established reference standard test Reporting clinical trials If you are reporting research into an intervention, treatment, exposure, or protective factor on people Use the CONSORT guideline or one of its extensions: If you selected your participants before they received the intervention/exposure/etc. under study, AND You controlled which intervention/exposure/etc. they each received, AND You used a random allocation method to decide which intervention/exposure/etc. they each received. ie: a randomised controlled trial All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) must be registered at or before the time of first patient enrollment in any primary registry of the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) or in ClinicalTrials.gov. Provide the registry name and registry number in the cover letter and methods section. RCTs should be presented according to the CONSORT guidelines. You can use CONSORT checklist extensions (e.g., cluster trials) for different designs and types of trials. At manuscript submission, authors must provide the CONSORT checklist accompanied by a flow diagram that illustrates the progress of patients through the trial, including recruitment, enrollment, randomization, withdrawal and completion, and a detailed description of the randomization procedure.
    Use the STROBE guideline or one of its extensions: If you selected your participants after they received the intervention/exposure/etc. under study, OR You selected your participants before they received the intervention/exposure/etc. under study AND you did not control which intervention/exposure/etc. they received (they decided/their doctor decided/life just happened) ie: an observational study
    Use the TREND guideline: If you selected your participants before they received the intervention/exposure/etc. under study, AND You used a non-random way to decide which intervention/exposure/etc. your participants received, such as which hospital they went to or what their clinical symptoms were. ie: a non-randomised trial
    Manuscripts lacking required checklists will be returned to authors for completion.

    Submission declaration and verification

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify compliance, your article may be checked by Crossref Similarity Check and other originality or duplicate checking software.

    Use of inclusive language

    Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. When coding terminology is used, we recommend to avoid offensive or exclusionary terms such as "master", "slave", "blacklist" and "whitelist". We suggest using alternatives that are more appropriate and (self-) explanatory such as "primary", "secondary", "blocklist" and "allowlist". These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.

    Reporting clinical trials

    Randomized controlled trials should be presented according to the CONSORT guidelines. At manuscript submission, authors must provide the CONSORT checklist accompanied by a flow diagram that illustrates the progress of patients through the trial, including recruitment, enrollment, randomization, withdrawal and completion, and a detailed description of the randomization procedure. The CONSORT checklist and template flow diagram are available online.

    Copyright

    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

    Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

    For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

    Author rights
    As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

    Focus Articles

    A Focus Article may present a hypothesis or state a position on a basic scientific or clinical topic related to pain. The position may be provocative, but must be based on scientific evidence. Such articles may outline key concepts and may identify future research needs. Focus articles should not exceed 3,000 words.

    Elsevier supports responsible sharing

    Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

    Role of the funding source

    You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement, it is recommended to state this.

    Note to NIH Grant Recipients: Articles accepted for publication from authors who have indicated that the underlying research reported in their articles was supported by an NIH grant will be sent by Elsevier to PubMed Central (PMC) for public access posting 12 months after final publication. The version of the article provided by Elsevier will be the final peer-reviewed manuscript that was accepted for publication and sent to Elsevier's production department, and which reflects author-agreed changes made in response to peer-review comments. Elsevier will authorize the author manuscript's public access posting 12 months after final publication. Following the deposit by Elsevier, authors will receive further communication from the NIH with respect to the submission.

    Language services

    Text should be presented in English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who submit to international journals but are not native speakers of English sometimes receive negative feedback regarding language usage. We strongly encourage such authors to have submissions pre-reviewed by colleagues with English fluency, or to be considered by a professional editing service such as https://webshop.elsevier.com/language-editing-services/language-editing/.

    Research Data

    This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project. Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

    Data linking

    If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described. There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page . For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect. In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

    Data statement

    To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data statement page.

    Mendeley Data

    This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.

    For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.

    Submission

    Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

    Editor contact information

    The Journal of Pain
    [email protected]

    Tonya M. Palermo, PhD, Editor
    The Journal of Pain
    Center for Child Health, Behavior and Development
    Seattle Children's Research Institute, M/S Cure-3
    P.O. Box 5371
    Seattle, WA 98195-6490
    USA

    Submit your article

    Please submit your article via https://www.editorialmanager.com/JPAIN.




    NEW SUBMISSIONS

    Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts your files to a single PDF file, which is used in the peer-review process.
    As part of the Your Paper Your Way service, you may choose to submit your manuscript as a single file to be used in the refereeing process. This can be a PDF file or a Word document, in any format or lay-out that can be used by referees to evaluate your manuscript. It should contain high enough quality figures for refereeing. If you prefer to do so, you may still provide all or some of the source files at the initial submission. Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be uploaded separately.

    References

    There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the article number or pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.

    Formatting requirements

    There are no strict formatting requirements but all manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to convey your manuscript, for example Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork and Tables with Captions.
    If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in your initial submission for peer review purposes.
    Divide the article into clearly defined sections.

    Please ensure the text of your paper is double-spaced and includes page numbers - this is an essential peer review requirement.

    Figures and tables embedded in text

    Please ensure the figures and the tables included in the single file are placed next to the relevant text in the manuscript, rather than at the bottom or the top of the file. The corresponding caption should be placed directly below the figure or table.

    Peer review

    This journal operates a single anonymized review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. Editors are not involved in decisions about papers which they have written themselves or have been written by family members or colleagues or which relate to products or services in which the editor has an interest. Any such submission is subject to all of the journal's usual procedures, with peer review handled independently of the relevant editor and their research groups. More information on types of peer review.

    REVISED SUBMISSIONS

    Use of word processing software

    Regardless of the file format of the original submission, at revision you must provide us with an editable file of the entire article. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). See also the section on Electronic artwork.
    To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

    Article structure

    Pages must be numbered consecutively, beginning with the title page. Manuscripts without numbered pages will be returned to authors for correction. Materials should be presented in this order:
    • Cover letter
    • Manuscript (as a single file that contains the following): title page (include all authors' names and affiliations and disclosures), abstract, perspective, key words, text, acknowledgments (optional), references, figure legends
    • Figures
    • Tables
    • Checklist (see more information)


    Cover letter

    A cover letter must be presented and must include contact information for the corresponding author; this contact information must also be presented on the title page and must match the corresponding author designated in the Elsevier Editorial System upon upload. (When such information differs, manuscripts will be returned to authors for correction.) Any conflicts of interest should be noted, and if no conflicts are present, this should be explicitly stated. Include a statement that all authors are listed and that all have contributed substantially to the manuscript. Authors must state whether manuscripts from the same study were submitted or published. Authors may optionally suggest the names of three potential reviewers who are not close colleagues and who are not in conflict; please include contact information.

    Formatting of funding sources

    List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

    Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

    It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

    If no funding has been provided for the research, it is recommended to include the following sentence:

    This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

    Title page (page 1)

    The title should be a concise and informative description of the study and should indicate animal species if the research was conducted on nonhuman animal subjects. Within the title, use nonproprietary names for drugs, and descriptions for devices. Brand name may be mentioned only once within the text (upon first reference), unless essential to the study. The title page should include the authors' names, department(s), institution where the work was done, and institutional affiliations of authors. The corresponding author must be clearly identified and phone/fax/e-mail information must be provided. The corresponding author noted on the manuscript's title page must be the same person designated as corresponding author within the Elsevier Editorial System. The title page should include a short running title (45 characters, excluding spaces).

    Disclosures

    This required section must appear on the title page. Research funding sources must be acknowledged, including corporate, grant, institutional, or departmental funds. If this does not apply, authors must state that no funding sources were provided. In this section, all authors must disclose any potential conflicts of interest and must include a declaration statement if no conflicts exist. Conflicts include honoraria, travel to conferences, consultancies, stock ownership (excluding publicly owned mutual funds), equity interests, and patent-licensing arrangements (particularly if a commercial product is noted in the article).

    Abstract (page 2)

    An abstract of 250 words or less should describe concisely the purpose of the study, the main findings, and conclusions, all in one paragraph without subheadings. References may not be included in the abstract.

    Trial registration

    The Journal will only consider for publication randomized clinical trials that were registered with an appropriate registration agency (such as clinicaltrials.gov) before the first subject was recruited. Registration information must be included at the end of the Abstract.

    These guidelines apply to studies that involve both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. The online registry information should appear at the end of the abstract.

    Systematic Review and Meta-analyses

    The Journal will only consider for publication systematic reviews and meta-analyses that were registered with an appropriate registration agency such as PROSPERO, an international database of prospectively registered systematic reviews (https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/). Please note that registration should take place prospectively -- before the article search was initiated. Please include registration information at the end of the Abstract.

    Perspective

    This item, limited to 50 words, should appear at the end of the abstract. The perspective presents a synopsis of the work to facilitate understanding of its significance. Authors of basic science reports should highlight the potential clinical relevance of their results for the benefit of clinical readers. Authors of clinical science reports should highlight the underlying mechanisms for the results, for the benefit of clinical scientists and basic scientists. Example: "Perspective: This article presents the psychometric properties of a new measure of spouse responses to patient chronic pain and well behavior. This measure could potentially help clinicians who seek to assess how spouse responses may contribute to patient pain and disability." References should not be included in the Perspective.

    Key words

    Five key words should be provided following the Perspective.

    Text

    Text headings should be as follows:

    Introduction: State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results. Limit the introduction to 600 words.
    Methods: Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference; only relevant modifcations should be described.
    Results: Results should be clear and concise.
    Discussion: This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature. Limit the discussion to 1500 words.

    Subheadings in the Methods, Results, and Discussion sections should be used as necessary to aid organization and presentation, but subheadings and sections should not be numbered. All sections should be written concisely. Note that section labels may not apply to some article types, including Focus Articles and Review Articles.



    Essential title page information

    Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
    Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
    Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
    Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

    Highlights

    Highlights are optional yet highly encouraged for this journal, as they increase the discoverability of your article via search engines. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that capture the novel results of your research as well as new methods that were used during the study (if any). Please have a look at the examples here: example Highlights.

    Highlights should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point).

    Graphical abstract

    Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. You can view Example Graphical Abstracts on our information site.

    Acknowledgments

    Collate acknowledgments in a separate section at the end of the article before the references; do not include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title, or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g, serving on community advisory boards, providing language help, data collection assistance, writing assistance, or proofreading the article). The Acknowledgments section is optional.

    Footnotes

    Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article.

    Artwork

    Artwork

    All figures must be cited in the text; figures must be cited in consecutive order (this also applies to individual panels within figures). Within figures, patients' eyes must be masked unless authors receive patient permission. For a consent form, contact the Editorial Office at [email protected].

    TIFF and EPS are the preferred formats for artwork. All type fonts used in studio-created artwork must be either "embedded" in the file or supplied separately. All graphic files supplied as bitmap format (not vector format) in TIFF, JPEG, or GIF must be submitted in sufficiently high resolution (240-300 dpi for grayscale or color images and 600-1000 dpi for line art) to allow for printing. See Elseviers website for guidelines for preparing electronic artwork: https://www.elsevier.com/authors/author-schemas/artwork-and-media-instructions.

    Electronic artwork

    General points
    • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
    • Preferred fonts: Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times), Symbol, Courier.
    • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
    • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
    • Indicate per figure if it is a single, 1.5 or 2-column fitting image.
    • For Word submissions only, you may still provide figures and their captions, and tables within a single file at the revision stage.
    • Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be provided in separate source files.

    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
    You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
    Formats
    Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
    EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as 'graphics'.
    TIFF (or JPG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPG): Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
    Please do not:
    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
    • Supply files that are too low in resolution.
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    Figure Legends

    A legend must be provided for each figure. Figure legends should be brief and not repetitive of description in the text. Legends should be placed in numerical order before the list of references.

    Tables

    All tables must be cited in the text in consecutive order. Tables should be comprehensive without reference to the text and should not be repetitive of descriptions in the text. Every table should consist of two or more columns; tables with only one column will be treated as lists and incorporated into the text. Each column must have a column heading. Explanatory matter and source notations for borrowed or adapted tables should be placed in a table footnote, not in the title or table body. For tables, files must be uploaded separately, and not embedded within the text of the manuscript.

    References

    Reference formatting

    There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the article number or pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:



    Citation examples:

    Journal articles
    Jensen MP, Hakimian S, Sherlin LH, Fregni F: New insights into neuromodulatory approaches for the treatment of pain. J Pain 9:193-199, 2008

    Books
    Koltzenberg M, McMahon S (eds): Wall and Melzack's Textbook of Pain, 5th ed. Philadelphia, Elsevier, 2006

    Chapter/article in book
    Begg C: Publication bias. In: Cooper H, Hedges L (eds): Handbook of Research Synthesis. New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 1994, pp 399-409

    Software
    SAS Institute. SAS/STAT software: Changes and enhancements through release 6.12. Cary, NC: SAS Institute, 1996

    Supplement
    Dworkin RH, Gnann JW, Oaklander AL, Raja SN, Schmader KE, Whitley RJ: Diagnosis and Assessment of Pain Associated with Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia. J Pain 9(Suppl 1):37-55, 2008

    Epub Ahead of Print
    Nielsen CS, Staud R, Price DD: Individual differences in pain sensitivity: Measurement, causation, and consequences. J Pain 2009 Feb 8; [Epub ahead of print]

    URL
    The American Academy of Pain Medicine: The use of opioids for the treatment of chronic Pain: A Consensus Statement. Available at: http://www.painmed.org. Accessed March 9, 2006

    For other examples not listed here, please contact The Journal of Pain editorial office at [email protected]

    The reference list should appear at the end of the manuscript. The list must be in alphabetical order, according to the surname of the first author. In cases of multiple citations by the same first author, references should be listed by chronological date of the publication. In cases of multiple citations by the same first author and different second, third, etc. authors, references should be cited in alphabetical order according to the surname of the second, third, etc. authors. Within the text, papers should be cited using superscript numbers that correspond to the alphabetized reference list as follows: "Similar changes were demonstrated in the cingulate cortex.15" All authors must be listed in the references; the use of et al is not permitted. Journal abbreviations should conform to the style used in Index Medicus, National Library of Medicine. Unpublished data, personal communications, and abstracts that cannot be retrieved by readers (eg, some meeting abstracts), and other inaccessible materials may not be listed as references. Unpublished materials may be cited parenthetically within the text, noting the main author and the year in which the research was conducted. For manuscripts containing citations that are in press, authors must have electronic copies immediately available in case reviewers/ editors request these materials. If all or part of this research was presented in Abstract form at an American Pain Society annual meeting, please note this at the end of the Introduction and include the citation in the list of References, citing abstracts published in The Journal of Pain's annual meeting supplemental issue. For information on formatting a specific Abstract reference, contact the Editorial Office at [email protected].

    Citation in text

    Ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). The abstract may not contain references. Unpublished results and personal communications are not permitted in the reference list but may be mentioned in the text as "Unpublished results" or "Personal communication." For unpublished study results, include the main authors name and the year during which the research was conducted. In-press references are allowed for initial submission and during the review process only. Revised manuscripts accepted for publication by The Journal of Pain may not include in-press or unpublished materials in the references section; these materials may be cited within the text parenthetically as noted above.

    Reference links

    Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, Crossref and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.

    A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000884. Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

    Web references

    As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

    Data references

    This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

    Preprint references

    Where a preprint has subsequently become available as a peer-reviewed publication, the formal publication should be used as the reference. If there are preprints that are central to your work or that cover crucial developments in the topic, but are not yet formally published, these may be referenced. Preprints should be clearly marked as such, for example by including the word preprint, or the name of the preprint server, as part of the reference. The preprint DOI should also be provided.

    References in a special issue

    Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

    Reference management software

    Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley. Using citation plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes from different reference management software.

    Journal abbreviations source

    Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.

    Video

    Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

    Data visualization

    Include interactive data visualizations in your publication and let your readers interact and engage more closely with your research. Follow the instructions here to find out about available data visualization options and how to include them with your article.

    Supplementary material

    Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.

    Research data

    This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

    Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

    Data linking

    If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

    There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

    For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

    In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

    Data statement

    To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.

    Permissions

    To use information borrowed or adapted from another source, authors must obtain permission from the copyright holder (usually the publisher). This is necessary even if you are the author of the borrowed material. It is essential to begin the process of obtaining permissions early; a delay may require removing the copyrighted material from the article. Give the source of a borrowed table in a footnote to the table; give the source of a borrowed figure in the legend of the figure. The source must also appear in the list of references. Use exact wording required by the copyright holder. Send copies of the letter granting permission, identified by table or figure number, to the Editorial Office at [email protected] (a scanned and uploaded copy is fine; please include the manuscript number in the subject line).

    To secure permission for materials published in The Journal of Pain, please visit https://www.elsevier.com/authors/obtaining-permission-to-re-use-elsevier-material. For more information about permission issues, contact [email protected] or visit https://www.elsevier.com/permissions.

    Cover Images

    The Journal of Pain will publish appropriate images on the journal's cover. Selected figures may accompany a submitted manuscript (authors should make a note in the covering letter), or images may be submitted individually. Authors are encouraged to submit art for consideration; materials may be uploaded to https://www.editorialmanager.com/JPAIN/default.aspx.

    Proprietary Information

    Use nonproprietary names for drugs, and descriptions for devices. Brand name may be mentioned only once within the text (upon first reference), unless essential to the study. For presentation of brand or trade names, include manufacturer's name, city, state and country within parentheses. Upon subsequent reference, use generic drug names or device descriptions only.




    Proofs

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    If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and scan the pages and return via e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.




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